esophageal reconstruction using right colon interposition background: Esophageal replacement therapy is indicated for benign and malignant esophageal lesions and can be performed using stomach, jejunum or colon. aim: To report the experience using right colon interposition for esophageal replacement. material and methods: Review of medical records of 41 patients aged 17 to 73 years (29 males), subjected to right colon interposition in the last 20 years. Indications, complications, mortality and long term results were recorded. results: Forty nine percent of patients had a malignant esophageal lesion. Esophagectomy was performed using a transhiatal route or thoracotomy in 44 and 30% of patients, respectively. Retroesternal ascension was the most common route used in 88% of patients. The most common surgical complication was cervical fistula in 29% of patients, followed by fistula of the anastomosis between colon and jejunum in 7% of patients. Pneumonia was the most common medical complication. Postoperative mortality was 7%. conclusions: The mortality in this series of patients is similar to that reported elsewhere.
Therapy of empyema. Retrospective review of 77 patients Background: Empyema can cause significant medical problems, despite the advances in antimicrobial and surgical treatments. Aim: To compare the results of different therapeutic approaches to empyema. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of 77 patients with empyema (aged 53 ± 20 years, 48 males) treated in a clinical hospital between 1994 and 2007. Results: In 74% of patients the cause of empyema was pneumonia. Thirty two were initially managed with percutaneous pleurostomy. Seven of these required and additional intervention due to residual empyema. Eleven patients were managed with open thoracotomy and 34 with video assisted thoracoscopy. Complications for percutaneous pleurostomy, open thoracotomy and video assisted thoracoscopy were 34, 36 and 12% respectively. The figures for mortality were 25, 0 and 0% respectively. Patients subjected to video assisted thoracoscopy required less days with a pleural tube than those subjected to percutaneous pleurostomy or open thoracotomy (5,5-14,3 and 12,4 days respectively). Conclusions: Video assisted thoracoscopy had the best therapeutic results for empyema in this series of patients.
Lung sclerosing hemangioma is an uncommon tumor that presents as a solitary asymptomatic nodule and that affects middle age women. It derives from type II pneumocytes. We report a 52 years old female with a solitary lung nodule detected in a chest X ray requested for the diagnosis of an acute respiratory disease. The nodule was excised by video thoracoscopy and the frozen section biopsy was informed as a non small cell undifferentiated carcinoma. Therefore an inferior right lobectomy with lymph node resection was performed. The definitive biopsy was informed as a lung sclerosing hemangioma.
surgical treatment of esophageal cancer. an updateEsophageal cancer surgery is a challenge despite the advances in surgical techniques and perioperative care. It continues to have high rates of complications and mortality, even in large volume centers. This paper revises the epidemiology, staging and therapeutic options for esophageal cancer, according to its stage and location. It also encompasses the digestive tract reconstruction options, according to our own experience and reports from abroad.Key words: Esophageal cancer, surgery, digestive tract reconstruction.
resumenLa cirugía del cáncer de esófago ha sido y sigue siendo un desafío pese a los avances en técnica quirúrgica y cuidados peri operatorios y a pesar de que las complicaciones postoperatorias y la morbimortalidad sigue siendo alta, aún en centros con alto volumen de procedimientos y más aún en centros no dedicados a la atención de estos pacientes. En este artículo se revisarán algunos aspectos epidemiológicos, las herramientas diagnósticas actuales, su etapificación, y las opciones terapéuticas de acuerdo al estadío, sea en etapas precoces o avanzadas, la localización y tipo de tumor, opciones de reconstrucción del tránsito digestivo en base a lo reportado en la literatura internacional, la experiencia nacional y en base a nuestros propios resultados en
Benefits from the exercise of autonomy and informed consent: The example of Jehovah's Witnesses The respect for self-determination has represented a great challenge for the medical community. This debate has resulted in laws, codes of ethics, international treaties, and administrative guidelines, all with the purpose of protecting such right. In the medical field, the "Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine", known as the Oviedo Convention plays a crucial role. The doctrine of Informed Consent (IC) exists to enforce it. This principle is considered as law in some countries. In Chile, the IC is considered in the legal ordinance and in documents that are used as guidelines in the field of ethics. Jehovah's Witnesses invoke such precepts when they demand respect for their decisions. The present article outlines their position regarding blood transfusions and their contribution to the practice of bloodless medicine and surgery, which promotes the respect for patient's self determination. The experience of Jehovah's Witnesses has lead to a dignified treatment of the patient and has promoted a better participation in decision-making, focusing on the patient. All these benefits can be conveyed to other patients, resulting in the protection of the dignity of the individual (Rev Méd Chile 2009; 137: 1388-94).
Results of esophagectomy among patients with esophageal cancer and Barrett esophagusBackground: The incidence of esophageal carcinoma has increased notoriously worldwide. Aim: To assess clinical features, immediate surgical results and long term survival of patients with esophageal carcinoma and Barrett esophagus. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of all patients operated for esophageal carcinoma, between 1996 y 2011. Results: The records of 53 patients aged 58 ± 9 years (45 males) were analyzed. The number of operated patients increased from 7 in the period 1968-1983 to 31 in the period 2004-2011. Peritoneal metastases were found in two patients, precluding a resection. Video assisted trans-hiatal approach was the most commonly used technique followed by minimally invasive thoracoscopic and laparoscopic surgery. Transit reconstruction was performed ascending the stomach to the neck in 90% of patients. The average length of Barrett esophagus was 7.4 cm and the mean number of excised lymph nodes was 19. Ten patients had an incipient cancer and their five years survival was 80%. The survival of those with tumors involving the muscular layer and those with transmural cancer was 25 and 5%, respectively. Conclusions: There is an increase in the incidence of esophageal cancer in the last 10 years. The survival after surgery is highly dependent on the invasiveness of the tumor.
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