The role of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy alone for staging of early-stage cervical cancer remains controversial. We aimed to determine the validity of this technique in women with early-stage cervical cancer.
We retrospectively reviewed women with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent SLN mapping followed by complete pelvic lymphadenectomy as part of initial surgical management from August 1997 through October 2015. All modes of surgical approach were included. Lymphatic mapping was performed using blue dye, technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99), and/or indocyanine green (ICG). We determined SLN detection rates, sensitivity and negative predictive value.
One hundred eighty-eight patients were included, and 35 (19%) had lymph node metastases. At least one SLN was identified in 170 patients (90%), and bilateral SLNs were identified in 117 patients (62%). The majority of SLNs (83%) were found in the pelvis. There was no difference in detection rates between mapping agents, surgical approach, patients with and without prior conization or between patients with tumors < 2 cm and ≥ 2 cm. The detection rate for bilateral SLNs was significantly lower in women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2 than in women with lower BMI (p=0.03). Metastatic disease in sentinel nodes was detected by H&E staining in 78% of cases and required ultrastaging/immunohistochemistry in 22% of cases. Only one patient had a false-negative result, yielding a sensitivity of 96.4% (95% CI 79.8%–99.8%) and negative predictive value of 99.3% (95% CI 95.6%–100%). The false-negative rate was 3.6%.
In these women with early-stage cervical cancer, SLN biopsy had very high sensitivity and negative predictive value. We believe it is time to change the standard of care for women with early-stage cervical cancer to SLN biopsy only.
Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix account for less than 2% of all invasive cervical cancers and are classified as low-grade (carcinoid, atypical carcinoid tumor) or high-grade (known as small- and large-cell) neuroendocrine carcinomas. There are increasing data showing that cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas may be associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV18, and most will stain positive for p16. Immunohistochemistry markers such as synaptophysin and CD56 are the most sensitive markers. Although there are no commonly associated mutations, PIK3CA, KRAS, and TP53 are the most frequently found mutations in neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrine cervical carcinomas are exceedingly aggressive tumors with a high tendency for nodal involvement and distant metastases. Age, lymph node metastases, smoking, pure small-cell histology, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors. Overall, the 5-year survival rate is 36% and the median overall survival ranges between 22 and 25 months. Treatment options are often extrapolated from small-cell lung cancer and limited retrospective studies. The preferred treatment is a multimodal approach of surgery, chemoradiation, and systemic chemotherapy. The most common chemotherapy regimen used as initial therapy is a combination of cisplatin and etoposide. In the setting of recurrent disease, a combination of topotecan, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab has demonstrated favorable outcomes. Multicenter tumor registries, such as the Neuroendocrine Cervical Tumor Registry (NeCTuR), are an opportunity to evaluate patterns of disease treatment and oncologic outcomes.
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs aim to hasten functional recovery and improve postoperative outcomes. However, there is a paucity of data on ERAS programs in gynecologic surgery. We reviewed the published literature on ERAS programs in colorectal surgery, general gynecologic surgery, and gynecologic oncology surgery to evaluate the impact of such programs on outcomes, and to identify key elements in establishing a successful ERAS program. ERAS programs are associated with shorter length of hospital stay, a reduction in overall health care costs, and improvements in patient satisfaction. We suggest an ERAS program for gynecologic oncology practice involving preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative strategies including; preadmission counseling, avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation, use of opioid-sparing multimodal perioperative analgesia (including loco-regional analgesia), intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT), and use of minimally invasive surgical techniques with avoidance of routine use of nasogastric tube, drains and/or catheters. Postoperatively, it is important to encourage early feeding, early mobilization, timely removal of tubes and drains, if present, and function oriented multimodal analgesia regimens. Successful implementation of an ERAS program requires a multidisciplinary team effort and active participation of the patient in their goal-oriented functional recovery program. However, future outcome studies should evaluate the efficacy of an intervention within the pathway, include objective measures of symptom burden and control, study measures of functional recovery, and quantify outcomes of the program in relation to the rates of adherence to the key elements of care in gynecologic oncology such as oncologic outcomes and return to intended oncologic therapy (RIOT).
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Recently the revised 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for cervical cancer was published. In this most recent classification, imaging modalities and pathologic information have been added as tools to determine the final stage of the disease. Although there are many merits to this new staging for cervical cancer, including more detailed categorization of early-stage disease as well as information on nodal distribution, the classification falls short in clarifying areas of controversy in the staging system. Many unanswered questions remain and, as such, a number of gaps lead to further debate in the interpretation of relevant clinical data. Factors such as measurement of tumor size, definition of parametrial involvement, ovarian metastases, lower uterine segment extension, lymph node metastasis, and imaging modalities are explored in this review. The goal is to focus on items that deserve further discussion and clarification in the most recent FIGO staging for cervical cancer.
ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate if varying levels of compliance with an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol impacted post-operative outcomes (length of stay, complications, readmissions, and re-operations) in gynecologic surgery at a tertiary center.MethodsWe included 584 patients who had open gynecologic surgery between November 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016. Patients were categorized into subgroups according to their date of surgery from the time of the ERAS protocol implementation. Patients were categorized by their per cent compliance into two groups:<80% versus ≥80%. We analyzed compliance with the elements of the protocol over time and its relation with post-operative outcomes, length of stay, post-operative complications, readmission, and re-operations rates. We modeled the probability of having a post-operative complication within 30 days of surgery as a function of overall compliance.ResultsOverall compliance was 72.3%. Patients with compliance ≥80% had significantly less complications (P<0.001) and shorter length of stay (P<0.001). Readmission and re-operation rates were not impacted by compliance (P=0.182, P=0.078, respectively). Avoidance of salt water overload, early mobilization, early oral nutrition, and early removal of Foley catheter were significantly associated with less post-operative complications within 30 days.ConclusionsCompliance with an ERAS pathway exceeding 80% was associated with lower complication rates and shorter length of stay without impacting on re-operations or readmissions.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.