Summary. Background: Quercetin, a flavonoid present in the human diet, which is found in high levels in onions, apples, tea and wine, has been shown previously to inhibit platelet aggregation and signaling in vitro. Consequently, it has been proposed that quercetin may contribute to the protective effects against cardiovascular disease of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Objectives: A pilot human dietary intervention study was designed to investigate the relationship between the ingestion of dietary quercetin and platelet function. Methods: Human subjects ingested either 150 mg or 300 mg quercetin-4¢-O-b-D-glucoside supplement to determine the systemic availability of quercetin. Platelets were isolated from subjects to analyse collagen-stimulated cell signaling and aggregation. Results: Plasma quercetin concentrations peaked at 4.66 lM (± 0.77) and 9.72 lM (± 1.38) 30 min after ingestion of 150-mg and 300-mg doses of quercetin-4¢-O-b-Dglucoside, respectively, demonstrating that quercetin was bioavailable, with plasma concentrations attained in the range known to affect platelet function in vitro. Platelet aggregation was inhibited 30 and 120 min after ingestion of both doses of quercetin-4¢-O-b-D-glucoside. Correspondingly, collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of total platelet proteins was inhibited. This was accompanied by reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase Cc2, components of the platelet glycoprotein VI collagen receptor signaling pathway. Conclusions: This study provides new evidence of the relatively high systemic availability of quercetin in the form of quercetin-4¢-O-b-D-glucoside by supplementation, and implicates quercetin as a dietary inhibitor of platelet cell signaling and thrombus formation.
Formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during the correct folding of nascent proteins is modulated by a family of enzymes known as thiol isomerases, which include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), endoplasmic reticulum protein 5 (ERP5), and ERP57. Recent evidence supports an alternative role for this family of proteins on the surface of cells, where they are involved in receptor remodeling and recognition. In platelets, blocking PDI with inhibitory antibodies inhibits a number of platelet activation pathways, including aggregation, secretion, and fibrinogen binding. Analysis of human platelet membrane fractions identified the presence of the thiol isomerase protein ERP5. Further study showed that ERP5 is resident mainly on platelet intracellular membranes, although it is rapidly recruited to the cell surface in response to a range of platelet agonists. Blocking cell-surface ERP5 using inhibitory antibodies leads to a decrease in platelet aggregation in response to agonists, and a decrease in fibrinogen binding and P-selectin exposure. It is possible that this is based on the disruption of integrin function, as we observed that ERP5 becomes physically associated with the integrin ␤ 3 subunit during platelet stimulation. These results provide new insights into the involvement of thiol isomerases and regulation of platelet activation. IntroductionIn classical terms, reduction/oxidation systems within a cell have been represented very simply. The cytoplasmic environment is hypoxic and reducing, whereas the extracellular environment is normoxic and oxidizing. The generation of a disulfide bond from 2 cysteine residues is an oxidation reaction. To correctly generate these bonds inside the cell, there are, therefore, a group of enzymes known as the thiol isomerases. These are capable of the formation, reduction, and rearrangement of the disulfide-bonding patterns of proteins, often as part of folding of nascent proteins. The thiol isomerase enzymes are anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum via KDEL-receptor proteins.  Recent studies have suggested additional functions for thiol isomerase enzymes: on the surface of cells, where they participate in receptor activation and remodeling, and substrate processing.  Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the best-characterized thiol isomerase to demonstrate this dual functionality. A number of cell types, including bovine aortic endothelial cells, 7 rat hepatocytes, 8,9 and human B cells, 5,10 have been shown to secrete PDI, which associates with the cell surface. Cell-surface PDI has been implicated in the reduction of the disulfide-linked diptheria toxin heterodimer 11 and events triggering the entry of HIV into lymphoid cells. 6,12 On the basis of a series of investigations, initially by Detweiller and coworkers, a role for PDI in platelet physiology is now established. 4, Early studies demonstrated PDI was present on the external membrane of activated and resting platelets, and proteins with thiol isomerase activity were secreted f...
Summary. Background: The regulation of platelet function by pharmacological agents that modulate platelet signaling has proven a successful approach to the prevention of thrombosis. A variety of molecules present in the diet have been shown to inhibit platelet activation, including the antioxidant quercetin. Objectives: In this report we investigate the molecular mechanisms through which quercetin inhibits collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation. Methods: The effect of quercetin on platelet aggregation, intracellular calcium release, whole cell tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular signaling events including tyrosine phosphorylation and kinase activity of proteins involved in the collagen-stimulated glycoprotein (GP) signaling pathway were investigated. Results: We report that quercetin inhibits collagen-stimulated whole cell protein tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular mobilization of calcium, in a concentration-dependent manner. Quercetin was also found to inhibit various events in signaling generated by the collagen receptor GPVI. This includes collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the Fc receptor g-chain, Syk, LATand phospholipase Cg2. Inhibition of phosphorylation of the Fc receptor g-chain suggests that quercetin inhibits earlysignaling events following stimulation of platelets with collagen. The activity of the kinases that phosphorylate the Fc receptor g-chain, Fyn and Lyn, as well as the tyrosine kinase Syk and phosphoinositide 3-kinase was also inhibited by quercetin in a concentration-dependent manner, both in whole cells and in isolation. Conclusions: The present results provide a molecular basis for the inhibition by quercetin of collagen-stimulated platelet activation, through inhibition of multiple componentsof the GPVI signaling pathway, and may begin to explain the proposed health benefits of high quercetin intake.
There has been much recent interest in the cardiovascular benefits of dietary isoflavones. The aim of the present in vitro studies was to investigate potential anti-thrombogenic and antiatherogenic effects of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein in platelets, macrophages and endothelial cells. Pre-treatment with either isoflavone inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. In a macrophage cell line (RAW 264·7) activated with interferon g plus lipopolysaccharide, both isoflavones were found to inhibit NO production and tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a) secretion dose-dependently, but they did not affect mRNA levels for inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2. Both isoflavones also dose-dependently decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion induced by TNF-a in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Compared with daidzein, genistein exerted greater inhibitory effects for all parameters studied. The present data contributes to our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which isoflavones may protect against coronary artery disease. Further studies are required to determine whether the effects of isoflavones observed in the current in vitro studies are relevant to the aetiology of coronary artery disease in vivo.
Platelets play a substantial role in cardiovascular disease, and for many years there has been a search for dietary components that are able to inhibit platelet function and therefore decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. Platelets can be inhibited by alcohol, dietary fats and some antioxidants, including a group of compounds, the polyphenols, found in fruits and vegetables. A number of these compounds have been shown to inhibit platelet function both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study the effects of the hydroxycinnamates and the flavonoid quercetin on platelet activation and cell signalling in vitro were investigated. The hydroxycinnamates inhibited platelet function, although not at levels that can be achieved in human plasma by dietary intervention. However, quercetin inhibited platelet aggregation at levels lower than those previously reported. Quercetin was also found to inhibit intracellular Ca mobilisation and whole-cell tyrosine protein phosphorylation in platelets, which are both processes essential for platelet activation. The effect of polyphenols on platelet aggregation in vivo was also investigated. Twenty subjects followed a low-polyphenol diet for 3 d before and also during supplementation. All subjects were supplemented with a polyphenol-rich meal every lunchtime for 5 d. Platelet aggregation and plasma flavonols were measured at baseline and after 5 d of dietary supplementation. Total plasma flavonoids increased significantly after the dietary intervention period (P=0·001). However, no significant changes in ex vivo platelet aggregation were observed. Further investigation of the effects of individual polyphenolic compounds on platelet function, both in vitro and in vivo, is required in order to elucidate their role in the relationship between diet and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
The nutritional and metabolic characteristics of adult phenylketonuria (PKU) patients in the UK with varying dietary adherence is unknown. In other countries, nutritional and metabolic abnormalities have been reported in nonadherent patients compared to adherent counterparts. A pooled analysis of primary baseline data from two UK multi-centre studies was therefore performed to establish whether this is true from a UK perspective. Adult PKU patients who had provided 3-day food records and amino acid blood samples were included and grouped according to dietary adherence (adherent; n = 16 vs. nonadherent; n = 14). Nonadherent patients consumed greater amounts of natural protein compared to adherent patients (61.6 ± 30.7 vs. 18.3 ± 7.7 g/day; q < 0.001). In contrast, the contribution of protein substitutes to total protein intake was lower in nonadherent compared to adherent patients (3.9 ± 9.2 g/day vs. 58.6 ± 10.2 g/day; q < 0.001). Intakes of iron, zinc, vitamin D3, magnesium, calcium, selenium, iodine, vitamin C, vitamin A and copper were significantly lower in nonadherent compared to adherent patients and were below UK Reference Nutrient Intakes. Similarly, intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and phosphorus were significantly lower in nonadherent compared to adherent patients but met the UK Reference Nutrient Intakes. Phenylalanine concentrations in nonadherent patients were significantly higher than adherent patients (861 ± 348 vs. 464 ± 196 µmol/L; q = 0.040) and fell outside of European treatment target ranges. This study shows the nutritional and metabolic consequences of deviation from phenylalanine restriction and intake of PKU protein substitutes in nonadherent adult PKU patients. Collectively, these data further underlie the importance of life-long adherence to the PKU diet.
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