Caregivers' needs for support and the individuals most suited to providing support change across the stroke survivor's recovery trajectory. Changes to service delivery to better support caregivers may include: (1) addressing caregivers' changing needs across the care continuum; (2) implementing a family-centered model of care; and (3) providing 7-day per week inpatient rehabilitation.
Dialysis patients are increasingly older and more disabled. In community-dwelling seniors without kidney disease, falls commonly predict hospitalization, the onset of frailty, and the need for institutional care. Effective fall prevention strategies are available. On the basis of retrospective data, it was hypothesized that the fall rates of older (>65 yr) chronic outpatient hemodialysis (HD) patients would be higher than published rates for community-dwelling seniors (0.6 to 0.8 falls/patientyear). It also was hypothesized that risk factors for falls in dialysis outpatients would include polypharmacy, dialysis-related hypotension, cognitive impairment, and decreased functional status. Using a prospective cohort study design, HD patients who were >65 yr of age at a large academic dialysis unit were recruited. All study participants underwent baseline screening for fall risk factors. Patients were followed prospectively for a minimum of 1 yr. Falls were identified through biweekly patient interviews in the HD unit. A total of 162 patients (mean age 74.7 yr) were recruited; 57% were male. A total of 305 falls occurred in 76 (47%) patients over 190.5 person-years of follow-up (fall-incidence 1.60 falls/person-year). Injuries occurred in 19% of falls; 41 patients had multiple falls. Associated risk factors included age, comorbidity, mean predialysis systolic BP, and a history of falls. In the HD population, the fall risk is higher than in the general community, and fall-related morbidity is high. Better identification of HD patients who are at risk for falls and targeted fall intervention strategies are required.
Objective To compare rates of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage among elderly patients given selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX 2) inhibitors and non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Design Observational cohort study. Setting Administrative data from Ontario,
The findings of this observational study suggest no increase in the short-term risk of AMI among users of selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors as commonly used in clinical practice. Furthermore, the findings do not support a short-term reduced risk of AMI with naproxen.
For patient and proxy ratings, the EQ-5D had the best combination of measurement properties, although it had a substantial ceiling effect for patient ratings. Proxy QOL ratings did not accurately reflect patients' ratings.
OBJECTIVE:To compare results of a specific capacity assessment administered by the treating clinician, and a Standardized Mini-Mental Status Examination (SMMSE), with the results of expert assessments of patient capacity to consent to treatment.
DESIGN:Cross-sectional study with independent comparison to expert capacity assessments.
SETTING:Inpatient medical wards at an academic secondary and tertiary referral hospital.
PARTICIPANTS:One hundred consecutive inpatients facing a decision about a major medical treatment or an invasive medical procedure. Participants either were refusing treatment, or were accepting treatment but were not clearly capable according to the treating clinician.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The treating clinician (medical resident or student) conducted a specific capacity assessment on each participant, using a decisional aid called the Aid to Capacity Evaluation. A specific capacity assessment is a semistructured evaluation of the participant's ability to understand relevant information and appreciate reasonably foreseeable consequences with regard to the specific treatment decision. Participants also received a SMMSE administered by a research nurse. Participants then had two independent expert assessments of capacity. If the two expert assessments disagreed, then an independent adjudication panel resolved the disagreement after reviewing videotapes of both expert assessments. Using the two expert assessments and the adjudication panel as the reference standard, we calculated areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios. The areas under the receiveroperating characteristic curves were 0.90 for specific capacity assessment by treating clinician and 0.93 for SMMSE score (2 p ؍ .48). For the treating clinician's specific capacity assessment, likelihood ratios for detecting incapacity were as follows: definitely incapable, 20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.6, 120); probably incapable, 6.1 (95% CI 2.
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