Sixty-nine unselected SLE patients were studied to evaluate the prevalence of avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) and its relationship with steroid therapy and with anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL). All the patients were under treatment with corticosteroids. AVN occurred in seven occurred in seven of the 69 patients (10.14%) and was not related to corticosteroid intake. Seventeen of the 69 patients were also treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT) and cumulated the highest corticosteroid doses but none of them suffered from AVN. Excluding the 17 MPPT-treated SLE patients, corticosteroid intake was significantly higher in the AVN-SLE patients. Abnormal IgG and/or IgM aCL serum levels were found in two of the seven AVN-SLE patients and in 24 of the 62 non-AVN SLE, without a statistically significant difference. None of the seven AVN-SLE patients showed features of antiphospholipid syndrome. We conclude that in SLE patients a continuous high-dose steroid treatment may be considered a risk factor for AVN. On the contrary, MPPT regimen may reduce this risk. Anticardiolipin antibodies might represent an added factor which could play a role in some patients but not in all.
The nucleolus is a distinct sub-cellular compartment structure in the nucleus. First observed more than 200 years ago, the nucleolus is detectable by microscopy in eukaryotic cells and visible during the interphase as a sub-nuclear structure immersed in the nucleoplasm, from which it is not separated from any membrane. A huge number of studies, spanning over a century, have identified ribosome biogenesis as the main function of the nucleolus. Recently, novel functions, independent from ribosome biogenesis, have been proposed by several proteomic, genomic, and functional studies. Several works have confirmed the non-canonical role for nucleoli in regulating important cellular processes including genome stability, cell-cycle control, the cellular senescence, stress responses, and biogenesis of ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). Many authors have shown that both canonical and non-canonical functions of the nucleolus are associated with several cancer-related processes. The association between the nucleolus and cancer, first proposed by cytological and histopathological studies showing that the number and shape of nucleoli are commonly altered in almost any type of cancer, has been confirmed at the molecular level by several authors who demonstrated that numerous mechanisms occurring in the nucleolus are altered in tumors. Recently, therapeutic approaches targeting the nucleolus in cancer have started to be considered as an emerging “hallmark” of cancer and several therapeutic interventions have been developed. This review proposes an up-to-date overview of available strategies targeting the nucleolus, focusing on novel targeted therapeutic approaches. Finally, a target-based classification of currently available treatment will be proposed.
The pulvinar sign has a significantly lower incidence in Fabry disease than previously described. This finding, coupled with a lack of significant differences in quantitative MR imaging, allows hypothesizing that selective involvement of the pulvinar is a rare neuroradiologic sign of Fabry disease.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deep gray matter involvement is a consistent feature in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different deep gray matter alterations and the development of subcortical atrophy, as well as to investigate the possible different substrates of volume loss between phenotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with MS (52 with relapsing-remitting and 25 with progressive MS) and 41 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. MR imaging investigation included volumetric, DTI, PWI and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping analyses. Deep gray matter structures were automatically segmented to obtain volumes and mean values for each MR imaging metric in the thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. Between-group differences were probed by ANCOVA analyses, while the contribution of different MR imaging metrics to deep gray matter atrophy was investigated via hierarchic multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Patients with MS showed a multifaceted involvement of the thalamus and basal ganglia, with significant atrophy of all deep gray matter structures (P Ͻ .001). In the relapsing-remitting MS group, WM lesion burden proved to be the main contributor to volume loss for all deep gray matter structures (P Յ .006), with a minor role of local microstructural damage, which, in turn, was the main determinant of deep gray matter atrophy in patients with progressive MS (P Յ .01), coupled with thalamic susceptibility changes (P ϭ .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the diffuse involvement of deep gray matter in MS, demonstrating a different behavior between MS phenotypes, with subcortical GM atrophy mainly determined by global WM lesion burden in patients with relapsing-remitting MS, while local microstructural damage and susceptibility changes mainly accounted for the development of deep gray matter volume loss in patients with progressive MS. ABBREVIATIONS: DD ϭ disease duration; DGM ϭ deep gray matter; DMT ϭ disease-modifying treatment; EDSS ϭ Expanded Disability Status Scale; FA ϭ fractional anisotropy; HC ϭ healthy controls; LL ϭ lesion load; MD ϭ mean diffusivity; PMS ϭ progressive MS; QSM ϭ Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping; rCBV ϭ relative CBV; RRMS ϭ relapsing-remitting MS
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.