BackgroundThis is the first updated Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society guideline presenting a consensus for optimal perioperative care in gynecologic/oncology surgery.MethodsA database search of publications using Embase and PubMed was performed. Studies on each item within the ERAS gynecologic/oncology protocol were selected with emphasis on meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and large prospective cohort studies. These studies were then reviewed and graded according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.ResultsAll recommendations on ERAS protocol items are based on best available evidence. The level of evidence for each item is presented accordingly.ConclusionsThe updated evidence base and recommendation for items within the ERAS gynecologic/oncology perioperative care pathway are presented by the ERAS® Society in this consensus review.
ERAS was associated with improved postoperative outcomes, including decreased length of stay and pulmonary and cardiac morbidity after thoracotomy, but not after minimally invasive operations. ERAS safety was demonstrated by low rates of adverse events without effect on hospital readmission or perioperative deaths.
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs aim to hasten functional recovery and improve postoperative outcomes. However, there is a paucity of data on ERAS programs in gynecologic surgery. We reviewed the published literature on ERAS programs in colorectal surgery, general gynecologic surgery, and gynecologic oncology surgery to evaluate the impact of such programs on outcomes, and to identify key elements in establishing a successful ERAS program. ERAS programs are associated with shorter length of hospital stay, a reduction in overall health care costs, and improvements in patient satisfaction. We suggest an ERAS program for gynecologic oncology practice involving preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative strategies including; preadmission counseling, avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation, use of opioid-sparing multimodal perioperative analgesia (including loco-regional analgesia), intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT), and use of minimally invasive surgical techniques with avoidance of routine use of nasogastric tube, drains and/or catheters. Postoperatively, it is important to encourage early feeding, early mobilization, timely removal of tubes and drains, if present, and function oriented multimodal analgesia regimens. Successful implementation of an ERAS program requires a multidisciplinary team effort and active participation of the patient in their goal-oriented functional recovery program. However, future outcome studies should evaluate the efficacy of an intervention within the pathway, include objective measures of symptom burden and control, study measures of functional recovery, and quantify outcomes of the program in relation to the rates of adherence to the key elements of care in gynecologic oncology such as oncologic outcomes and return to intended oncologic therapy (RIOT).
There is widespread interest in the ERAS® guidelines for gynecologic oncology. • Many clinical departments still struggle with how to initiate their ERAS® program. • These recommendations will help translate the ERAS® guidelines into practice.
The results of this study indicate that the amounts of intraoperative opioids used are associated with recurrence and OS in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The association between the dose of intraoperative opioids used and RFS was marginally significant in patients with adenocarcinoma. Until confirmation on our findings by future studies, opioids should continue to be a key component of balanced anesthesia in patients with esophageal cancer.
ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate if varying levels of compliance with an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol impacted post-operative outcomes (length of stay, complications, readmissions, and re-operations) in gynecologic surgery at a tertiary center.MethodsWe included 584 patients who had open gynecologic surgery between November 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016. Patients were categorized into subgroups according to their date of surgery from the time of the ERAS protocol implementation. Patients were categorized by their per cent compliance into two groups:<80% versus ≥80%. We analyzed compliance with the elements of the protocol over time and its relation with post-operative outcomes, length of stay, post-operative complications, readmission, and re-operations rates. We modeled the probability of having a post-operative complication within 30 days of surgery as a function of overall compliance.ResultsOverall compliance was 72.3%. Patients with compliance ≥80% had significantly less complications (P<0.001) and shorter length of stay (P<0.001). Readmission and re-operation rates were not impacted by compliance (P=0.182, P=0.078, respectively). Avoidance of salt water overload, early mobilization, early oral nutrition, and early removal of Foley catheter were significantly associated with less post-operative complications within 30 days.ConclusionsCompliance with an ERAS pathway exceeding 80% was associated with lower complication rates and shorter length of stay without impacting on re-operations or readmissions.
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