Physical layer security (PLS) has been extensively explored as an alternative to conventional cryptographic schemes for securing wireless links. Of late, the research community is actively working towards exploiting cooperative communication techniques to further improve the security. Many studies are showing that the cooperation between the legitimate nodes of a network can significantly enhance their secret communications, relative to the non-cooperative case. Motivated by the importance of this class of PLS systems, this paper provides a comprehensive survey of the recent works on cooperative relaying and jamming techniques for securing wireless transmissions against eavesdropping nodes which attempt to intercept the transmissions. First, it provides a in-depth overview of various secure relaying strategies and schemes. Next, a review of recently proposed solutions for cooperative jamming techniques has been provided with an emphasis on power allocation and beamforming techniques. Then, the latest developments in hybrid techniques, that use both cooperative relaying and jamming, are elaborated. Finally, several key challenges in the domain of cooperative security are presented along with an extensive discussion on the applications of cooperative security in key enablers for 5G communications, such as non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), device-to-device (D2D) communications, and massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems.
Vehicular communications essentially support automotive applications for safety and infotainment. For this reason, industry leaders envision an enhanced role of vehicular communications in the fifth generation of mobile communications technology. Over the years, the number of vehicle-mounted sensors has increased steadily, which potentially leads to more volume of critical data communications in a short time. Also, emerging applications such as remote/autonomous driving and infotainment such as high-definition movie streaming require data-rates on the order of multiple Gbit/s. Such high data-rates require a large system bandwidth, but very limited bandwidth is available in the sub-6 GHz cellular bands. This has sparked research interest in the millimeter wave (mmWave) band (10 GHz-300 GHz), where a large bandwidth is available to support the high data-rate and low-latency communications envisioned for emerging vehicular applications. However, leveraging mmWave communications requires a thorough understanding of the relevant vehicular propagation channels, which are significantly different from those investigated below 6 GHz. Despite their significance, very few investigations of mmWave vehicular channels are reported in the literature. This work highlights the key attributes of mmWave vehicular communication channels and surveys the recent literature on channel characterization efforts in order to provide a gap analysis and propose possible directions for future research.
Ambient backscatter communications is an emerging paradigm and a key enabler for pervasive connectivity of low-powered wireless devices. It is primarily beneficial in the Internet of things (IoT) and the situations where computing and connectivity capabilities expand to sensors and miniature devices that exchange data on a low power budget. The premise of the ambient backscatter communication is to build a network of devices capable of operating in a battery-free manner by means of smart networking, radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting and power management at the granularity of individual bits and instructions. Due to this innovation in communication methods, it is essential to investigate the performance of these devices under practical constraints. To do so, this article formulates a model for wireless-powered ambient backscatter devices and derives a closed-form expression of outage probability under Rayleigh fading. Based on this expression, the article provides the power-splitting factor that balances the tradeoff between energy harvesting and achievable data rate. Our results also shed light on the complex interplay of a power-splitting factor, amount of harvested energy, and the achievable data rates.
Index TermsAmbient backscatter communications, Energy harvesting, Internet of Things (IoT), Smart networking, Wireless-powered communication
I. INTRODUCTIONThe grand vision of the Internet of things (IoT) is quickly turning into reality by bringing everything to the Internet , . Latest devices ranging from smartphones to implantable sensors and wearables are claiming to be "IoT capable". Although significant improvements have been seen from the design perspective of wireless devices, the objective of connecting everything to the Internet is still a far cry . It is because several important challenges arise when ensuring ubiquitous connectivity of devices. As indicated in , one of the first challenge is the limited life-cycle of miniature wireless devices. The energy constrained nature of devices becomes an obstacle as the massive amount of data is transferred across an IoT network and the devices are required to be operated in an untethered manner. Then, there is a requirement of communication reliability which is even more difficult to maintain in large-scale wireless systems . The increased reliability most often comes at a cost of increased energy consumption which cannot be regulated by small energy reservoirs of miniature IoT devices. Above all, these devices would need to demonstrate services like ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC), enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), and massive machine type communications (mMTC)for beyond 5G networks. Resultantly, it has become evident that an ultra low-powered communication paradigm is essential for enabling short-range communication among devices, without compromising the reliability of communications , .Of late, backscatter communication has gathered the attention of the researchers as a key enabling technology for connecting IoT...
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