a b s t r a c tMetabolic activity in the water column below the euphotic zone is ultimately fuelled by the vertical flux of organic material from the surface. Over time, the deep ocean is presumably at steady state, with sources and sinks balanced. But recently compiled global budgets and intensive local field studies suggest that estimates of metabolic activity in the dark ocean exceed the influx of organic substrates. This imbalance indicates either the existence of unaccounted sources of organic carbon or that metabolic activity in the dark ocean is being over-estimated. Budgets of organic carbon flux and metabolic activity in the dark ocean have uncertainties associated with environmental variability, measurement capabilities, conversion parameters, and processes that are not well sampled. We present these issues and quantify associated uncertainties where possible, using a Monte Carlo analysis of a published data set to determine the probability that the imbalance can be explained purely by uncertainties in measurements and conversion factors. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the bacterial growth efficiencies and assumed cell carbon contents have the greatest effects on the magnitude of the carbon imbalance. Two poorly quantified sources, lateral advection of particles and a population of slowly settling particles, are discussed as providing a means of closing regional carbon budgets. Finally, we make recommendations concerning future research directions to reduce important uncertainties and allow a better determination of the magnitude and causes of the unbalanced carbon budgets.
Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1) . Populations that were persistently dominant, transiently abundant or generally rare were found in several major bacterial groups, implying evolution has favoured a similar variety of life strategies within these groups. These findings suggest that high temporal resolution sampling allows constraining the timescales and frequencies at which distinct populations transition between being abundant or rare, thus potentially providing clues about physical, chemical or biological forcing on bacterioplankton community structure.
The distribution of prokaryotic abundance (PA), prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP), and suspended particulate organic material (POM), as well as total and dissolved (operationally defined as passing through 0.2 µm pore size filters) potential extracellular enzymatic activities (EEA; α-and β-glucosidase [AGase and BGase], leucine aminopeptidase [LAPase], and alkaline phosphatase [APase]) were determined in the meso-and bathypelagic waters of the (sub)tropical Atlantic along an eastern zonal transatlantic transect and a western N-S transect. Significant differences between both transects were found for POM concentration but not for PA, PHP (except in the subsurface and oxygen minimum layer), and dissolved and total EEA. PHP decreased by 3 orders of magnitude from the lower euphotic zone to bathypelagic waters, while PA and cell-specific PHP decreased only by 1 and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively. The proportion of the dissolved to the total EEA was high in the dark ocean for all the enzymes, ranging from 54 to 100, 56 to 100, 65 to 100 and 57 to 97% for AGase, BGase, LAPase and APase, respectively. The kinetic parameters (V max and K m ) of both the dissolved and total fractions of LAPase and APase were very similar throughout the water column, suggesting a similar origin for both dissolved and particulate EEA. Significant correlations of both dissolved and total EEA were found with prokaryotic metabolism and the POM pool. Based on the previous notion that the fraction of dissolved EEA is higher in particle-attached than in free-living microbes, our results suggest that microbial activity in the dark ocean occurs mainly on colloidal and particulate material. This is in agreement with recent genomic evidence. However, these colloidal and particulate materials are prone to disruption during the sampling process. Hence, more selective sampling techniques are needed to specifically collect these deep-water aggregates that probably represent hotspots of microbial activity in the deep ocean.
The distribution of prokaryotic abundance (PA), respiratory activity (ETS), heterotrophic production (PHP), and suspended particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) organic matter was determined in the meso-and bathypelagic waters of the (sub)tropical North Atlantic. PA decreased by one order of magnitude from the lower euphotic zone to the bathypelagic waters, while ETS decreased by two and PHP by three orders of magnitude. On a section following the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 35uN to 5uN, ETS below 1000-m depth increased southwards up to three-fold. This latitudinal gradient in the deep waters was paralleled by a six-fold increase in Particulate Organic Carbon (POC), whereas no trend was apparent in the DOM distribution. Significant correlations between POM and ETS were obtained in the water masses between 1000-m and 3000-m depth, the Antarctic Intermediate Water and the North East Atlantic Deep Water. A strong imbalance in the dark ocean was found between prokaryotic carbon demand (estimated through two different approaches) and the carbon sinking flux derived from sediment-trap records corrected with 230 Th. The imbalance was greater when deeper in the water column, suggesting that the suspended carbon pool must account for most of the carbon deficit. Our results, together with other recent findings discussed in this paper, indicate that microbial life in the dark ocean is likely more dependent on slowly sinking or buoyant, laterally advected suspended particles than hitherto assumed.
Prokaryotic extracellular enzymatic activity, abundance, heterotrophic production and respiration were determined in the meso- and bathypelagic (sub)tropical North Atlantic. While prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) decreased from the lower euphotic layer to the bathypelagic waters by two orders of magnitude, prokaryotic abundance and cell-specific PHP decreased only by one order of magnitude. In contrast to cell-specific PHP, cell-specific extracellular enzymatic activity (alpha- and beta-glucosidase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase) increased with depth as did cell-specific respiration rates. Cell-specific alkaline phosphatase activity increased from the intermediate water masses to the deep waters up to fivefold. Phosphate concentrations, however, varied only by a factor of two between the different water masses, indicating that phosphatase activity is not related to phosphate availability in the deep waters. Generally, cell-specific extracellular enzymatic activities were inversely related to cell-specific prokaryotic leucine incorporation. Thus, it is apparent that the utilization of deep ocean organic matter is linked to higher cell-specific extracellular enzymatic activity and respiration and lower cell-specific PHP than in surface waters.
Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.
Proteorhodopsin (PR) is present in half of surface ocean bacterioplankton, where its light-driven proton pumping provides energy to cells. Indeed, PR promotes growth or survival in different bacteria. However, the metabolic pathways mediating the light responses remain unknown. We analyzed growth of the PR-containing Dokdonia sp. MED134 (where light-stimulated growth had been found) in seawater with low concentrations of mixed [yeast extract and peptone (YEP)] or single (alanine, Ala) carbon compounds as models for rich and poor environments. We discovered changes in gene expression revealing a tightly regulated shift in central metabolic pathways between light and dark conditions. Bacteria showed relatively stronger light responses in Ala compared with YEP. Notably, carbon acquisition pathways shifted toward anaplerotic CO 2 fixation in the light, contributing 31 ± 8% and 24 ± 6% of the carbon incorporated into biomass in Ala and YEP, respectively. Thus, MED134 was a facultative double mixotroph, i.e., photo-and chemotrophic for its energy source and using both bicarbonate and organic matter as carbon sources. Unexpectedly, relative expression of the glyoxylate shunt genes (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) was >300-fold higher in the light-but only in Ala-contributing a more efficient use of carbon from organic compounds. We explored these findings in metagenomes and metatranscriptomes and observed similar prevalence of the glyoxylate shunt compared with PR genes and highest expression of the isocitrate lyase gene coinciding with highest solar irradiance. Thus, regulatory interactions between dissolved organic carbon quality and central metabolic pathways critically determine the fitness of surface ocean bacteria engaging in PR phototrophy. microbial ecology | gene expression regulation | quantitative PCR
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers