Ninety-five helminth parasite species totaling 480 records (including 60 new host and geographical records) in 21 species of wild carnivore mammals from Brazil were listed. Nineteen undetermined helminth species and 4 undetermined host species were also included. Information about the site of infection of parasites, localities, references and a host-parasite list were included herein.
Materials and MethodsThe list of parasitic crustaceans of fishes in Brazil was based on extensive search of published records. This bibliographic review of the crustacean species reported from fishes in Brazilian waters was complemented with information from the Zoological Record, Biological Abstracts, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, Biological and Agricultural Index Plus and the Scopus. Data were compiled until March, 2013. In the case of parasitic copepods, only information not presented in the checklist of Copepoda parasites of fishes from Brazil by Luque and Tavares (2007) was included. The number of parasitic associations was calculated from the sum of the richness of species of parasites on each host species.The checklist follows the classification and systematic arrangement proposed by Boxshall and Halsey (2004) for Copepoda, and Young (1998) and Martin and Davis (2001) for other crustacean groups.The species of crustaceans are arranged according to taxonomic categories, within which the species are presented in alphabetical order, followed by hosts (specific name), site of infection, habitat, localities and references (between parentheses, in chronological order). In addition, the checklist also includes crustacean species identified only at the genus level and undetermined species. Crustacean names presented in the checklist follow the most recent taxonomic literature, but validity of individual taxa or reliability of their records was not critically examined by the present authors. Host species were arranged in taxonomic and then alphabetical order.The key to identification of the genera of parasitic crustaceans from fishes in Brazil has been produced on the basis of those by Delaney
Seventy-four genera comprising approximately 140 named and 75 undetermined species of adult and larval nematodes are associated with about 330 named and 50 undetermined species of marine, brackish and freshwater fishes from Brazilian waters. These are listed with information on their hosts, habitat, distribution and records. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided.
Using available records, unpublished information retrieved from the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC) and published reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of endangered vertebrates from Brazil was generated. A total of 772 records and 186 helminth species (6 Acanthocephala, 83 Nematoda, 23 Cestoda, 64 Trematoda, 10 Monogenea) in 76 host species (7 Actinopterygii, 8 Chondrichthyes, 1 Amphibia, 10 Reptilia, 22 Aves, 28 Mammalia) from Brazil were listed in the present work, including 39 undetermined helminth species and 10 new host records. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of threatened vertebrates in Brazil and in the Neotropics.
A checklist of records of aspidogastrean trematodes (Aspidogastrea) is provided on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the literature since 1826, when the first aspidogastrean species was reported, until December 2014. We list 61 species representing 13 genera within 4 families and 2 orders of aspidogastreans associated with 298 species of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. The majority of records include bivalves (44% of the total number of host-parasite associations), whereas records from bony fishes represent 32% of host-parasite associations. The aspidogastreans have worldwide distribution, with the highest number of records in the Neartic Region for freshwater hosts and the North Atlantic Ocean for marine ones. The checklist includes a parasite-host list with data on host habitat, site of infection and distribution area of parasites, and a host-parasite list. A limited number of molecular studies on aspidogastreans does not allow us to unravel phylogenetic relationships within the Aspidogastrea.
Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.
Abstract:The life cycle of Hedruris spinigera Baylis, 1931 (Nematoda: Hedruridae) is determined here with the first formal identification of the parasite's intermediate host: the crustacean amphipod Paracorophium excavatum Thomson. Adult H. spinigera are redescribed from specimens collected from the stomach of fishes, Retropinna retropinna (Richardson) and Aldrichetta forsteri (Valenciennes), from Lake Waihola, New Zealand. Immature adults of the parasite collected from intermediate hosts (P. excavatum) are also described for the first time. The prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection of H. spinigera in several fish species are quantified along with the occurrence of P. excavatum, the parasite's intermediate host, in fish stomach contents. Although H. spinigera's transmission mode (trophic transmission) and fish diet potentially expose all fish species to infection, some level of host specificity must exist as parasite prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection vary greatly between potential definitive host species. We suggest here that the anatomy of the fish digestive tract and especially that of the stomach plays an important role in host suitability for H. spinigera. While P. excavatum is the only intermediate host in Lake Waihola, H. spinigera was found in six different fish species: Aldrichetta forsteri, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), Retropinna retropinna, Rhombosolea retiaria Hutton, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus and Salmo trutta Linnaeus; although typical hedrurid attachment and mating positions were observed only in R. retropinna and A. forsteri. The limited distribution of H. spinigera is most likely due to that of its different host species (intermediate and definitive), all inhabitants of coastal fresh and brackish waters.
A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed features that were not previously mentioned (e.g. presence of unpaired cloacal papilla, detailed morphology of cloacal lips), as well as negligible differences in morphometry and caudal papillae arrangement. Observations on the type material of C. carioca suggested affinities with the genus Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902; however, the poor preservation of these specimens does not allow further conclusions. Cucullanus rougetae is considered to be a species inquirenda.
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