Maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A increased the colostrum level of this nutrient but reduced the bioavailability of α-tocopherol, which may harm the newborn's health because newborns have limited vitamin E reserves.
This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.
OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the
birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing
mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The
newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis
of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid
chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children
were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants,
the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the
preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women
whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and
1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group,
the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight
>4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and
1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively
(p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers
who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These
results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the
OBJETIVO: Definir o estado nutricional e estabelecer a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina A (DVA) em puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública brasileira, além de avaliar a influência de características maternas e obstétricas sobre os níveis de retinol no soro e no colostro nessa população. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo de corte transversal 97 puérperas saudáveis classificadas quanto à idade, estado nutricional, paridade, via de parto, peso ao nascer e idade gestacional do recém-nascido. Três amostras de colostro e uma de soro foram coletadas em jejum no pós-parto imediato. O retinol foi analisado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Para caracterizar o estado nutricional em vitamina A, foi adotado ponto de corte para retinol no soro de 30µg/dL e, no colostro, de 60µg/dL. RESULTADOS: No grupo total de puérperas, a concentração média de 60µg/dL de retinol no colostro e 43µg/dL no soro indicou estado bioquímico adequado. No entanto, ao se avaliar individualmente, constatou-se alta prevalência de DVA subclínica no soro (15%) e no colostro (50%). Não foi verificada influência das características maternas, obstétricas e do neonato sobre os níveis de retinol no soro e no colostro das mulheres (p>0,05). CONCLUSÕES: O risco de DVA pode ocorrer em gestantes/puérperas independentemente das características maternas e obstétricas consideradas. Esse fato reforça a necessidade da atenção especial ao acompanhamento pré-natal de todas as mulheres, a fim de prevenir a instalação da DVA e garantir a redução dos índices de morbimortalidade infantil e materna.
Despite the diagnosis of satisfactory nutritional status, breastfeeding women showed significant risk of subclinical vitamin E deficiency. We suggest that the concentration of alpha-tocopherol in colostrum be associated with type of delivery and pre-gestational nutritional status of women.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum
of healthy and diabetic mothers.METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis
of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and
colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and
α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In
order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the
serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables
compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the
colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's
correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of
α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered
significant when p<0.05.RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control
Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between
groups (p=0.50). However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum
was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic
one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the
concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and
diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was
not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum.
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