ContextThe contemporary decline in mortality reported in patients with STsegment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been attributed mainly to improved use of reperfusion therapy.Objective To determine potential factors-beyond reperfusion therapyassociated with improved survival in patients with STEMI over a 15-year period.
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on general health care. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a nationwide lockdown in France on admissions to hospital for acute myocardial infarction, by patient characteristics and regional prevalence of the pandemic. Methods In this registry study, we collected data from 21 centres participating in the ongoing French Cohort of Myocardial Infarction Evaluation (FRENCHIE) registry, which collects data from all patients admitted for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) within 48 h of symptom onset. We analysed weekly hospital admissions over 8 weeks: the 4 weeks preceding the institution of the lockdown and the 4 weeks following lockdown. The primary outcome was the change in the number of hospital admissions for all types of acute myocardial infarction, NSTEMI, and STEMI between the 4 weeks before lockdown and the 4 weeks after lockdown. Comparisons between categorical variables were made using χ² tests or Fisher's exact tests. Comparisons of continuous variables were made using Student's t tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Poisson regression was used to determine the significance of change in hospital admissions over the two periods, after verifying the absence of overdispersion. Age category, region, and type of acute myocardial infarction (STEMI or NSTEMI) were used as covariables. The FRENCHIE cohort is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04050956. Findings Between Feb 17 and April 12, 2020, 1167 patients were consecutively admitted within 48 h of acute myocardial infarction (583 with STEMI, 584 with NSTEMI) and were included in the study. Admissions for acute myocardial infarction decreased between the periods before and after lockdown was instituted, from 686 before to 481 after lockdown (30% decrease; incidence rate ratio 0⋅69 [95% CI 0⋅51-0⋅70]). Admissions for STEMI decreased from 331 to 252 (24%; 0⋅72 [0⋅62-0⋅85]), and admissions for NSTEMI decreased from 355 to 229 (35%; 0⋅64 [0⋅55-0⋅76]) following institution of the lockdown, with similar trends according to sex, risk factors, and regional prevalence of hospital admissions for COVID-19. Interpretation A marked decrease in hospital admissions was observed following the lockdown, irrespective of patient characteristics and regional prevalence of COVID-19. Health authorities should be aware of these findings, in order to adapt their message if the COVID-19 pandemic persists or recurs, or in case of future major epidemics. Funding Recherche Hospitalo-Universitaire en Santé iVasc.
ObjectivesRisk scores are recommended in guidelines to facilitate the management of patients who present with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Internationally, such scores are not systematically used because they are not easy to apply and some risk indicators are not available at first presentation. We aimed to derive and externally validate a more accurate version of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score for predicting the risk of death or death/myocardial infarction (MI) both acutely and over the longer term. The risk score was designed to be suitable for acute and emergency clinical settings and usable in electronic devices.Design and settingThe GRACE risk score (2.0) was derived in 32 037 patients from the GRACE registry (14 countries, 94 hospitals) and validated externally in the French registry of Acute ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation MI (FAST-MI) 2005.ParticipantsPatients presenting with ST-elevation and non-ST elevation ACS and with long-term outcomes.Outcome measuresThe GRACE Score (2.0) predicts the risk of short-term and long-term mortality, and death/MI, overall and in hospital survivors.ResultsFor key independent risk predictors of death (1 year), non-linear associations (vs linear) were found for age (p<0.0005), systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001), pulse (p<0.0001) and creatinine (p<0.0001). By employing non-linear algorithms, there was improved model discrimination, validated externally. Using the FAST-MI 2005 cohort, the c indices for death exceeded 0.82 for the overall population at 1 year and also at 3 years. Discrimination for death or MI was slightly lower than for death alone (c=0.78). Similar results were obtained for hospital survivors, and with substitutions for creatinine and Killip class, the model performed nearly as well.ConclusionsThe updated GRACE risk score has better discrimination and is easier to use than the previous score based on linear associations. GRACE Risk (2.0) performed equally well acutely and over the longer term and can be used in a variety of clinical settings to aid management decisions.
Cardiogenic shock remains a clinical concern, although early mortality has decreased. Improved survival is concomitant with a broader use of PCI and recommended medications at the acute stage. Beyond the acute stage, however, 1-year survival has remained unchanged.
Aim of FAST-MI 2010To gather data on characteristics, management and outcomes of patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the end of 2010 in France.InterventionsTo provide cardiologists and health authorities national and regional data on AMI management every 5 years.SettingMetropolitan France. 213 academic (n=38), community (n=110), army hospitals (n=2), private clinics (n=63), representing 76% of centres treating AMI patients. Inclusion from 1 October 2010.PopulationConsecutive patients included during 1 month, with a possible extension of recruitment up to one additional month (132 centres); 4169 patients included over the entire recruitment period, 3079 during the first 31 days; 249 additional patients declining participation (5.6%).StartpointsConsecutive adults with ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation AMI with symptom onset ≤48 h. Patients with AMI following cardiovascular procedures excluded.Data captureWeb-based collection of 385 items (demographic, medical, biologic, management data) recorded online from source files by external research technicians; case-record forms with automatic quality checks. Centralised biology in voluntary centres to collect DNA samples and serum. Long-term follow-up organised centrally with interrogation of municipal registry offices, patients' physicians, and direct contact with the patients.Data qualityData management in Toulouse University. Statistical analyses: Université Paris Descartes, Université de Toulouse, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 06, Paris.Endpoints and linkages to other dataIn-hospital events; cardiovascular events, hospital admissions and mortality during follow-up. Linkage with Institute for National Statistics.Access to dataAvailable for research to any participating clinician upon request to executive committee (firstname.lastname@example.org).
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