Foram caracterizadas antigenicamente amostras de Salmonella isoladas de aves (portadoras e doentes) provenientes de diversas regiões do país durante o período de 1962 a 1991. Nas 2123 culturas analisadas foram reconhecidos 90 sorovares, distribuídos em 14 sorogrupos com predominância dos grupos O:9 (40,0%), O:4 (33,3%), O:7 (10,6%) e O: 3,10 (6,7%). A maior diversidade de sorovares foi reconhecida no sorogrupo O:7 com 22 tipos distintos, secundado por O:4, O:3,10 e O:9, constituídos de 19, 15 e 10 sorotipos, respectivamente. No computo geral, foi determinada a média de 10,8 sorovares isolados por ano. Os sorovares classificados como muito frequentes nos três decênios, representando 65 a 67%, dos isolamentos, foram S. Gallinarum, S. Pullorum, S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, S. Enteritidis e S. Infantis. Considerações de natureza bacteriológica e epidemiológica foram discutidas em relação a alguns dos sorotipos prevalentes.
The present study evaluated the incidence of Listeria spp. in some Brazilian cheeses obtained from retail stores in Rio de Janeiro. Of 103 samples of various types of cheese examined as recommended in the Listeria isolation protocol of the Health Protection Branch of Canada, 11 (10.68%) were contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes, 13 (12.62%) by Listeria innocua, 6 (5.83%) by Listeria grayi, and 1 (0.97%) by Listeria welshimeri. A higher incidence of L. monocytogenes was observed mainly in the homemade Minas Frescal cheeses (a Brazilian soft white cheese, eaten fresh), 7 of 17 (41.17%), followed by ripened cheeses, 3 of 53 (5.67%), and industrially manufactured Frescal (Minas and Ricotta) cheeses, 1 of 33 (3.03%). Three serotypes (l/2a, l/2b and 4b) were observed among the strains of L. monocytogenes isolated, all of them being frequently involved in outbreaks of foodborne listeriosis and sporadic cases of the disease all over the world.
This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products.
(352-11.3%), 1/2a (162-5.2%), and 1/2b (148-4.7%). The predominant serovar in L. innocua was 6a (2,093-67.2%). Considerations about laboratory methods for diagnosis and epidemiological aspects are presented on the basis of the results obtained.
Introduction: Listeria species are susceptible to most antibiotics. However, over the last decade, increasing reports of multidrug-resistant Listeria spp. from various sources have prompted public health concerns. The objective of this study was to characterize the antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria spp. and the genetic mechanisms that confer resistance. Methodology: Forty-six Listeria spp. isolates were studied, and their minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were determined by microdilution using Sensititre standard susceptibility MIC plates. The isolates were screened for the presence of gyrA, parC, lde, lsa(A), lnu(A), and mprF by PCR, and the amplified genes were sequenced. Results: All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and carbapenems. Resistance to clindamycin, daptomycin, and oxacillin was found among L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and all species possessed at least intermediate resistance to fluoroquinolones. GyrA, parC, and mprF were detected in all isolates; however, mutations were found only in gyrA sequences. A high daptomycin MIC, as reported previously, was observed, suggesting an intrinsic resistance of Listeria spp. to daptomycin. Conclusions: These results are consistent with reports of emerging resistance in Listeria spp. and emphasize the need for further genotypic characterization of antibiotic resistance in this genus.
Burkholderia pseudomallei has rarely been isolated from environmental and clinical specimens in South America, particularly, in Brazil. This report describes a case of melioidosis with fulminant sepsis in a 10 year old boy, from rural area, in Tejuçuoca, State of Ceará, Brazil. Blood samples were positive and, through the analysis of results from biochemical tests and of drugs susceptibility profile, identified this gram-negative bacillus as B. pseudomallei. The contamination source remains obscure in this case, as soil and water tanks samples submitted to microbiological analyses did not indicate the presence of B. pseudomallei.
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