ObjectiveThe study presents a multi-channel patient-independent neonatal seizure detection system based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier.MethodsA machine learning algorithm (SVM) is used as a classifier to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure EEG epochs. Two post-processing steps are proposed to increase both the temporal precision and the robustness of the system. The resulting system is validated on a large clinical dataset of 267 h of EEG data from 17 full-term newborns with seizures.ResultsThe performance of the system using event-based metrics is reported. The system showed the best up-to-date performance of a neonatal seizure detection system. The system was able to achieve an average good detection rate of ∼89% with one false seizure detection per hour, ∼96% with two false detections per hour, or ∼100% with four false detections per hour. An analysis of errors revealed sources of misclassification in terms of both missed seizures and false detections.ConclusionsThe results obtained with the proposed SVM-based seizure detection system allow for its practical application in neonatal intensive care units.SignificanceThe proposed SVM-based seizure detection system can greatly assist clinical staff, in a neonatal intensive care unit, to interpret the EEG. The system allows control of the final decision by choosing different confidence levels which makes it flexible for clinical needs. The obtained results may provide a reference for future seizure detection systems.
ObjectiveThis study discusses an appropriate framework to measure system performance for the task of neonatal seizure detection using EEG. The framework is used to present an extended overview of a multi-channel patient-independent neonatal seizure detection system based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier.MethodsThe appropriate framework for performance assessment of neonatal seizure detectors is discussed in terms of metrics, experimental setups, and testing protocols. The neonatal seizure detection system is evaluated in this framework. Several epoch-based and event-based metrics are calculated and curves of performance are reported. A new metric to measure the average duration of a false detection is proposed to accompany the event-based metrics. A machine learning algorithm (SVM) is used as a classifier to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure EEG epochs. Two post-processing steps proposed to increase temporal precision and robustness of the system are investigated and their influence on various metrics is shown. The resulting system is validated on a large clinical dataset of 267 h.ResultsIn this paper, it is shown how a complete set of metrics and a specific testing protocol are necessary to extensively describe neonatal seizure detection systems, objectively assess their performance and enable comparison with existing alternatives. The developed system currently represents the best published performance to date with an ROC area of 96.3%. The sensitivity and specificity were ∼90% at the equal error rate point. The system was able to achieve an average good detection rate of ∼89% at a cost of 1 false detection per hour with an average false detection duration of 2.7 min.ConclusionsIt is shown that to accurately assess the performance of EEG-based neonatal seizure detectors and to facilitate comparison with existing alternatives, several metrics should be reported and a specific testing protocol should be followed. It is also shown that reporting only event-based metrics can be misleading as they do not always reflect the true performance of the system.SignificanceThis is the first study to present a thorough method for performance assessment of EEG-based seizure detection systems. The evaluated SVM-based seizure detection system can greatly assist clinical staff, in a neonatal intensive care unit, to interpret the EEG.
In recent years, numerous brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on motor-imagery have been proposed which incorporate features such as adaptive classification, error detection and correction, fusion with auxiliary signals and shared control capabilities. Due to the added complexity of such algorithms, the evaluation strategy and metrics used for analysis must be carefully chosen to accurately represent the performance of the BCI. In this article, metrics are reviewed and contrasted using both simulated examples and experimental data. Furthermore, a review of the recent literature is presented to determine how BCIs are evaluated, in particular, focusing on the relationship between how the data are used relative to the BCI subcomponent under investigation. From the analysis performed in this study, valuable guidelines are presented regarding the choice of metrics and evaluation strategy dependent upon any chosen BCI paradigm.
A real-time neonatal seizure detection system is proposed based on a Gaussian mixture model classifier. The system includes feature transformation techniques and classifier output postprocessing. The detector was evaluated on a database of 20 patients with 330 h of recordings. A detailed analysis of the choice of parameters for the detector is provided. A mean good detection rate of 79% was obtained with only 0.5 false detections per hour. A thorough review of all misclassified events was performed, from which a number of patterns causing false detections were identified.
This work presents a multi-channel patient-independent neonatal seizure detection system based on the SVM classifier. Several post-processing steps are proposed to increase temporal precision and robustness of the system and their influence on performance is shown. The SVM-based system is evaluated on a large clinical dataset using several epoch-based and event based metrics and curves of performance are reported. Additionally, a new metric to measure the average duration of a false detection is proposed to accompany the event-based metrics.
A number of automated neonatal seizure detectors have been proposed in recent years. However, there exists a large variability in the morphology of seizure and background patterns, both across patients and over time. This has resulted in relatively poor performance from systems which have been tested over large datasets. Here, the benefits of employing a pattern recognition approach are discussed. Such a system may use numerous features paired with nonlinear classifiers. In particular, two types of nonlinear classifiers are contrasted for the task. Additionally, it is shown that the proposed architecture allows for efficient classifier combination which improves the performance of the algorithm. The resulting automated detector is shown to achieve field leading performance. A particular strength of the proposed algorithm is the performance of the algorithm when very low false detections are required, at 0.25 false detections per hour, the system is able to detect 75.4% of the seizure events.
A measure of bipolar channel importance is proposed for EEG-based detection of neonatal seizures. The channel weights are computed based on the integrated synchrony of classifier probabilistic outputs for the channels which share a common electrode. These estimated timevarying weights are introduced within a Bayesian probabilistic framework to provide a channelspecific and thus adaptive seizure classification scheme. Validation results on a clinical dataset of neonatal seizures confirm the utility of the proposed channel weighting for the two patientindependent seizure detectors recently developed by this research group; one based on support vector machines and the other on Gaussian mixture models. By exploiting the channel weighting, the ROC area can be significantly increased for the most difficult patients, with the average ROC area across 17 patients increased by 22% (relative) for the SVM and by 15% (relative) for the GMM-based detector, respectively. It is shown that the system developed here outperforms the recent published studies in this area.
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