Palavras-chave: Vigna unguiculata, Manihot sp., sistema itinerante, aração, comunidade infestante.ABSTRACT -This study investigated the floristic composition of weeds in a burnt area in Zé Doca, Maranhão, during three agricultural years. The preparation of the area at the first crop year (2006/ 2007) was by slash-and-burn for maize cultivation, followed by cowpea. In the second and third crop years, the preparation of the area consisted of plowing for maize cultivation, followed by cassava (2007/2008) and later, by cowpea in rotation with cassava (2008/2009). Weed collection in the cowpea and cassava crops was carried out 30 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) during the first and second agricultural year, respectively, and cowpea crop at 30 DAS in the third crop year with a rectangle (0.5 x 0.3 m) randomly placed in the area. Every launch was conducted to evaluate the aerial parts of the weeds harvested for counting, identification and drying to obtain the phytosociological indices. The slash-and-burn practice reduces the variety and number of weeds. Species with the highest IVI were Imperata brasiliensis, Sida glomerata and Corchorus argutus after slash-and-burn in the cowpea culture; and Juncus sp., Spermacoce verticillata, Aeschynomene americana and Cyperus sp. after plowing in the cassava and cowpea cultures. Secondary vegetation plants occurred after burn, but were reduced over time.
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