In December 2019, a striking appearance of new cases of viral pneumonia in Wuhan led to the detection of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). By analyzing patients with severe manifestations, it became apparent that 20 to 35% of patients who died had preexisting cardiovascular disease. This finding warrants the important need to discuss the influence of SARS-CoV2 infection on the cardiovascular system and hemodynamics in the context of clinical management, particularly during mechanical ventilation. The SARS-CoV2 enters human cells through the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is important to cardiovascular modulation and endothelial signaling. As ACE2 is highly expressed in lung tissue, patients have been progressing to acute respiratory injury at an alarming frequency during the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Moreover, COVID-19 leads to high D-dimer levels and prothrombin time, which indicates a substantial coagulation disorder. It seems that an overwhelming inflammatory and thrombogenic condition is responsible for a mismatching of ventilation and perfusion, with a somewhat near-normal static lung compliance, which describes two types of pulmonary conditions. As such, positive pressure during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) must be applied with caution. The authors of this review appeal to the necessity of paying closer attention to assess microhemodynamic repercussion, by monitoring central venous oxygen saturation during strategies of IMV. It is well known that a severe respiratory infection and a scattered inflammatory process can cause non-ischemic myocardial injury, including progression to myocarditis. Early strategies that guide clinical decisions can be lifesaving and prevent extended myocardial damage. Moreover, cardiopulmonary failure refractory to standard treatment may necessitate the use of extreme therapeutic strategies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
BackgroundExacerbation of pulmonary dysfunction has been reported in patients receiving a pleural drain inserted through the intercostal space in comparison to patients with an intact pleura undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Evidence suggests that shifting the site of pleural drain insertion to the subxyphoid position minimizes chest wall trauma and preserves respiratory function in the early postoperative period. The aim of this study was to compare the pulmonary function parameters, clinical outcomes, and pain score between patients undergoing pleurotomy with pleural drain placed in the subxyphoid position and patients with intact pleural cavity after off-pump CABG (OPCAB) using left internal thoracic artery (LITA).MethodsSeventy-one patients were allocated into two groups: I (n = 38 open left pleural cavity and pleural drain inserted in the subxyphoid position); II (n = 33 intact pleural cavity). Pulmonary function tests and clinical parameters were recorded preoperatively and on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3 and 5. Arterial blood gas analysis and shunt fraction were evaluated preoperatively and in POD1. Pain score was assessed on POD1. To monitor pleural effusion and atelectasis chest radiography was performed routinely 1 day before operation and until POD5.ResultsIn both groups a significant impairment was found in lung function parameters until on POD5. However, no significant difference in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were seen between groups. A significant decrease in partial pressure of arterial oxygen and an increase in shunt fraction values were observed on POD1 in both groups, but no statistical difference was found when the groups were compared. Pleural effusion and atelectasis until on POD5 were similar in both groups. There were no statistical differences in pain score, duration of mechanical ventilation and postoperative hospital stay between groups.ConclusionSubxyphoid insertion of pleural drain provides similar effects to preserved pleural integrity in pulmonary function, clinical outcomes, and thoracic pain after OPCAB. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis that once pleural cavities are incidentally or purposely opened during LITA dissection, subxyphoid placement of the pleural drain is recommended.
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies on endotracheal tube cuff pressure (CP) management, the literature has yet to establish a technique capable of adequately filling the cuff with an appropriate volume of air while generating low CP in a less subjective way. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate and compare the CP levels and air volume required to fill the endotracheal tubes cuff using 2 different techniques (volume-time curve versus minimal occlusive volume) in the immediate postoperative period after coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: A total of 267 subjects were analyzed. After the surgery, the lungs were ventilated using pressure controlled continuous mandatory ventilation, and the same ventilatory parameters were adjusted. Upon arrival in the ICU, the cuff was completely deflated and re-inflated, and at this point the volume of air to fill the cuff was adjusted using one of 2 randomly selected techniques: volume-time curve and minimal occlusive volume. We measured the volume of air injected into the cuff, the CP, and the expired tidal volume of the mechanical ventilation after the application of each technique. RESULTS: The volume-time curve technique demonstrated a significantly lower CP and a lower volume of air injected into the cuff, compared to the minimal occlusive volume technique (P < .001). No significant difference was observed in the expired tidal volume between the 2 techniques (P ؍ .052). However, when the subjects were submitted to the minimal occlusive volume technique, 17% (n ؍ 47) experienced air leakage as observed by the volume-time graph. CONCLUSIONS: The volume-time curve technique was associated with a lower CP and a lower volume of air injected into the cuff, when compared to the minimal occlusive volume technique in the immediate postoperative period after coronary artery bypass grafting. Therefore, the volume-time curve may be a more reliable alternative for endotracheal tube cuff management.
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