BackgroundThe Mesopsychidae is an extinct family of Mecoptera, comprising eleven described genera from Upper Permian to Lower Cretaceous deposits. In 2009, several well-preserved mesopsychids with long proboscides were reported from the mid Mesozoic of Northeastern China, suggesting the presence of pollination mutualisms with gymnosperm plants and highlighting their elevated genus-level diversity. Since that time, additional mesopsychid taxa have been described. However, the phylogeny of genera within Mesopsychidae has not been studied formally, attributable to the limited number of well-preserved fossils.ResultsHere, we describe two new species, Lichnomesopsyche prochorista sp. nov. and Vitimopsyche pristina sp. nov. and revise the diagnosis of Lichnomesopsyche daohugouensis Ren, Labandeira and Shih, 2010, based on ten specimens from the latest Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. After compiling data from these new fossil species and previously reported representative taxa, we conducted phylogenetic analyses and geometric morphometric studies that now shed light on the taxonomy and phylogeny of Mesopsychidae. We also evaluate the recurring origin of the siphonate proboscis in the Mecoptera and propose an evolutionary developmental model for its multiple origins.ConclusionsPhylogenetic and geometric morphometric results confirm the establishment of two new species, each to Lichnomesopsyche and Vitimopsyche. Vitimopsyche pristina sp. nov. extends the existence of the genus Vitimopsyche Novokshonov and Sukacheva, 2001, from the mid Lower Cretaceous to the latest Middle Jurassic. Two methods of analyses indicate an affiliation of Mesopsyche dobrokhotovae Novokshonov, 1997 with Permopsyche Bashkuev, 2011. A phylogenetic analysis of the Mesopsychidae supports: 1), Mesopsychidae as a monophyletic group; 2), Mesopsyche as a paraphyletic group, to be revised pending future examination of additional material; and 3), the independent origin of the proboscis in the Pseudopolycentropodidae, its subsequent loss in earliest Mesopsychidae such as Epicharmesopsyche, its re-origination in the common ancestor (or perhaps independently) in the Vitimopsyche and Lichnomesopsyche clades of the Mesopsychidae. The third conclusion indicates that the proboscis originated four or five times within early Mecoptera, whose origin is explained by an evolutionary developmental model.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-015-0575-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The head and mouthpart structures of 11 species of Eurasian scorpionflies represent three extinct and closely related families during a 62-million-year interval from the late Middle Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous. These taxa had elongate, siphonate (tubular) proboscides and fed on ovular secretions of extinct gymnosperms. Five potential ovulate host-plant taxa co-occur with these insects: a seed fern, conifer, ginkgoopsid, pentoxylalean, and gnetalean. The presence of scorpionfly taxa suggests that siphonate proboscides fed on gymnosperm pollination drops and likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms during the mid-Mesozoic, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding flies, moths, and beetles on angiosperms. All three scorpionfly families became extinct during the later Early Cretaceous, coincident with global gymnosperm-to-angiosperm turnover.Animal pollination, most frequently accomplished by insects (1), benefits seed plants by ensuring efficient fertilization without relying on costlier, abiotic modes such as wind and water
Pollinating insects played a decisive role in the origin and early evolution of the angiosperms. Pollinating orthorrhaphous Brachycera fossils (short-horned flies) collected from Late Jurassic rocks in Liaoning Province of northeast China provide evidence for a pre-Cretaceous origin of angiosperms. Functional morphology and comparison with modern confamilial taxa show that the orthorrhaphous Brachycera were some of the most ancient pollinators. These data thus imply that angiosperms originated during the Late Jurassic and were represented by at least two floral types.
Description of the Early Cretaceous (Yixian Formation, China) fauna of Staphylininae and Paederinae rove beetles, and a rigorous (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) phylogenetic analysis of both extinct and extant taxa resulted in the following discoveries: a stem lineage sister to Staphylininae + Paederinae; a new tribe for Staphylininae, Thayeralinini trib. n.; several extinct species of the extant tribe Arrowinini; extinct basal lineages of the extant tribe Staphylinini; two stem genera of the “Xantholinine‐lineage” (Staphylininae); and recovery of Mesostaphylinus in Paederinae with several new species. It is demonstrated that by the Early Cretaceous, Paederinae and Staphylininae were already diversified into groups, some of which now represent extant tribes but not the branches dominating in the modern biota. While the study of the Early Cretaceous rove beetle fauna pushes the estimated divergence time between Paederinae and Staphylininae down into the Jurassic, it also suggests that presently hyperdiverse groups of Staphylininae originated some time later than the Early Cretaceous. In addition to one new tribe, five new genera (Paleothius, Cretoprosopus, Thayeralinus, Paleowinus and Durothorax) and 17 new species are described in Staphylininae, and three new species of Mesostaphylinus are described in Paederinae. Mesostaphylinus fraternus (incertae sedis) is moved to the genus Thayeralinus (Staphylininae).
Fishflies (Corydalidae: Chauliodinae) are one of the main groups of the basal holometabolous insect order Megaloptera, with ca. 130 species distributed worldwide. A number of genera from the Southern Hemisphere show remarkably disjunctive distributions and are considered to be the austral remnants or “living fossils” of Gondwana. Hitherto, the evolutionary history of fishflies remains largely unexplored due to limited fossil record and incomplete knowledge of phylogenetic relationships. Here we describe two significant fossil species of fishflies, namely Eochauliodes striolatus gen. et sp. nov. and Jurochauliodes ponomarenkoi Wang & Zhang, 2010 (original designation for fossil larvae only), from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. These fossils represent the earliest fishfly adults. Furthermore, we reconstruct the first phylogenetic hypothesis including all fossil and extant genera worldwide. Three main clades within Chauliodinae are recognized, i.e. the Dysmicohermes clade, the Protochauliodes clade, and the Archichauliodes clade. The phylogenetic and dispersal-vicariance (DIVA) analyses suggest Pangaean origin and global distribution of fishflies before the Middle Jurassic. The generic diversification of fishflies might have happened before the initial split of Pangaea, while some Gondwanan-originated clades were likely to be affected by the sequential breakup of Pangaea. The modern fauna of Asian fishflies were probably derived from their Gondwanan ancestor but not the direct descendents of the Mesozoic genera in Asia.
Non-avian theropod dinosaurs with preserved integumentary coverings are becoming more common; but apart from the multiple specimens of Caudipteryx, which have true feathers, animals that are reasonably complete and entirely articulated that show these structures in relation to the body have not been reported. Here we report on an enigmatic small theropod dinosaur that is covered with filamentous feather-like structures over its entire body.
BackgroundLacewings (insect order Neuroptera), known in the fossil record since the Early Permian, were most diverse in the Mesozoic. A dramatic variety of forms ranged in that time from large butterfly-like Kalligrammatidae to minute two-winged Dipteromantispidae.Principal FindingsWe describe the intriguing new neuropteran family Parakseneuridae fam. nov. with three new genera and 15 new species from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou (Inner Mongolia, China) and the Early/Middle Jurassic of Sai-Sagul (Kyrgyzstan): Parakseneura undula gen. et sp. nov., P. albomacula gen. et sp. nov., P. curvivenis gen. et sp. nov., P. nigromacula gen. et sp. nov., P. nigrolinea gen. et sp. nov., P. albadelta gen. et sp. nov., P. cavomaculata gen. et sp. nov., P. inflata gen. et sp. nov., P. metallica gen. et sp. nov., P. emarginata gen. et sp. nov., P. directa gen. et sp. nov., Pseudorapisma jurassicum gen. et sp. nov., P. angustipenne gen. et sp. nov., P. maculatum gen. et sp. nov. (Daohugou); Shuraboneura ovata gen. et sp. nov. (Sai-Sagul). The family comprises large neuropterans with most primitive wing venation in the order indicated by the presence of ScA and AA1+2, and the dichotomous branching of MP, CuA, CuP, AA3+4, AP1+2. The phylogenetic position of Parakseneuridae was investigated using a phylogenetic analysis of morphological scoring for 33 families of extinct and extant Neuropterida combined with DNA sequence data for representatives of all extant families. Parakseneuridae were recovered in a clade with Osmylopsychopidae, Prohemerobiidae, and Ithonidae.Conclusions/SignificanceThe presence of the presumed AA1+2 in wings of Parakseneuridae is a unique plesiomorphic condition hitherto unknown in Neuropterida, the clade comprising Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera. The relative uncertainty of phylogenetic position of Parakseneuridae and the majority of other families of Neuroptera reflects deficient paleontological data, especially from critical important periods for the order, earliest Triassic and latest Triassic/earliest Jurassic.
The relationships of extant and extinct lineages of Adephaga were analysed formally for the first time. Emphasis is placed on the aquatic and semiaquatic groups and their evolution in the Mesozoic. †Triadogyrus and †Mesodineutus belong to Gyrinidae, the sister group of the remaining families. †Triaplidae are the sister group of the following groups (Haliplidae, Geadephaga, Dytiscoidea incl. †Liadytidae, †Parahygrobiidae and †Coptoclavidae [major part]). The lack of a ventral procoxal joint and a very short prosternal process are plesiomorphies of †Triaplidae. †Coptoclavidae and †Timarchopsinae are paraphyletic. †Timarchopsis is placed in a geadephagan clade. In contrast to other coptoclavids, its metathorax is close to the condition found in Haliplidae, with a complete transverse ridge and coxae with large plates and free mesal walls. †Coptoclavidae s.str., i.e. excl. †Timarchopsis, is a dytiscoid subgroup. The mesal metacoxal walls are fused, the coxal plates are reduced, and the transverse ridge is absent. †Stygeonectes belongs to this dytiscoid coptoclavid unit and is therefore misplaced in †Timarchopsinae. †Liadytidae belongs to a dytiscoid subgroup, which also comprises the extant families Aspidytidae, Amphizoidae, Hygrobiidae and Dytiscidae. †Parahygrobia is the sister group of Hygrobiidae. The larvae are characterized by a broad gula, the absence of the lacinia, retractile maxillary bases and very long urogomphi set with long setae. †Liadytiscinae is the sister group of extant Dytiscidae. There is no support for a clade †Eodromeinae and for Trachypachidae incl. †Eodromeinae. †Fortiseode is nested within Carabidae. The exclusion of fossil taxa has no effect on the branching pattern. The evolution of Adephaga in the Mesozoic is discussed. Possible reasons for the extinction of †Coptoclavidae are the rise of teleost fish and the competition of Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae, which possess efficient defensive glands and larval mandibular sucking channels.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers