The use of extremely high frequency (EHF) or millimeter-wave (mmWave) band has attracted significant attention for the next generation wireless access networks. As demonstrated by recent measurements, mmWave frequencies render themselves quite sensitive to "blocking" caused by obstacles like foliage, humans, vehicles, etc. However, there is a dearth of analytical models for characterizing such blocking and the consequent effect on the signal reliability. In this paper, we propose a novel, general, and tractable model for characterizing the blocking caused by humans (assuming them to be randomly located in the environment) to mmWave propagation as a function of system parameters like transmitter-receiver locations and dimensions, as well as density and dimensions of humans. Moreover, the proposed model is validated using a ray-launcher tool. Utilizing the proposed model, the blockage probability is shown to increase with human density and separation between the transmitter-receiver pair. Furthermore, the developed analysis is shown to demonstrate the existence of a transmitter antenna height that maximizes the received signal strength, which in turn is a function of the transmitter-receiver distance and their dimensions.
Millimeter-wave (mmWave) propagation is known to be severely affected by the blockage of the line-of-sight (LoS) path. In contrast to microwave systems, at shorter mmWave wavelengths such blockage can be caused by human bodies, where their mobility within environment makes wireless channel alternate between the blocked and non-blocked LoS states. Following the recent 3GPP requirements on modeling the dynamic blockage as well as the temporal consistency of the channel at mmWave frequencies, in this paper a new model for predicting the state of a user in the presence of mobile blockers for representative 3GPP scenarios is developed: urban micro cell (UMi) street canyon and park/stadium/square. It is demonstrated that the blockage effects produce an alternating renewal process with exponentially distributed non-blocked intervals, and blocked durations that follow the general distribution. The following metrics are derived (i) the mean and the fraction of time spent in blocked/non-blocked state, (ii) the residual blocked/non-blocked time, and (iii) the timedependent conditional probability of having blockage/no blockage at time t1 given that there was blockage/no blockage at time t0. The latter is a function of the arrival rate (intensity), width, and height of moving blockers, distance to the mmWave access point (AP), as well as the heights of the AP and the user device. The proposed model can be used for system-level characterization of mmWave cellular communication systems. For example, the optimal height and the maximum coverage radius of the mmWave APs are derived, while satisfying the required mean data rate constraint. The system-level simulations corroborate that the use of the proposed method considerably reduces the modeling complexity.Index Terms-Cellular networks, mmWave, human body blockage, temporal consistency, mobility of blockers. Recent work has studied the impact of LoS blockage in urban microwave systems , . However, the results do
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