It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
Aspergillus species have emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. This expanding population is composed of patients with prolonged neutropenia, advanced HIV infection, and inherited immunodeficiency and patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and/or lung transplantation. This document constitutes the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America for treatment of aspergillosis and replaces the practice guidelines for Aspergillus published in 2000 . The objective of these
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality. The consensus definitions of the Infectious Diseases Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group have been of immense value to researchers who conduct clinical trials of antifungals, assess diagnostic tests, and undertake epidemiologic studies. However, their utility has not extended beyond patients with cancer or recipients of stem cell or solid organ transplants. With newer diagnostic techniques available, it was clear that an update of these definitions was essential.
To achieve this, 10 working groups looked closely at imaging, laboratory diagnosis, and special populations at risk of IFD. A final version of the manuscript was agreed upon after the groups’ findings were presented at a scientific symposium and after a 3-month period for public comment. There were several rounds of discussion before a final version of the manuscript was approved.
There is no change in the classifications of “proven,” “probable,” and “possible” IFD, although the definition of “probable” has been expanded and the scope of the category “possible” has been diminished. The category of proven IFD can apply to any patient, regardless of whether the patient is immunocompromised. The probable and possible categories are proposed for immunocompromised patients only, except for endemic mycoses.
These updated definitions of IFDs should prove applicable in clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic research of a broader range of patients at high-risk.
Mucormycosis is an emerging angioinvasive infection caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order of the class of Zygomycetes. Mucormycosis has emerged as the third most common invasive mycosis in order of importance after candidiasis and aspergillosis in patients with hematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Mucormycosis also remains a threat in patients with diabetes mellitus in the Western world. Furthermore, this disease is increasingly recognized in recently developed countries, such as India, mainly in patients with uncontrolled diabetes or trauma. Epidemiological data on this type of mycosis are scant. Therefore, our ability to determine the burden of disease is limited. Based on anatomic localization, mucormycosis can be classified as one of 6 forms: (1) rhinocerebral, (2) pulmonary, (3) cutaneous, (4) gastrointestinal, (5) disseminated, and (6) uncommon presentations. The underlying conditions can influence clinical presentation and outcome. This review describes the emerging epidemiology and the clinical manifestations of mucormycosis.
We detected a slight increase in IFIs during the surveillance period. These data provide important insights into the timing and incidence of IFIs among organ transplant recipients, which can help to focus effective prevention and treatment strategies.
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection that occurs in patients who are immunocompromised because of diabetic ketoacidosis, neutropenia, organ transplantation, and/or increased serum levels of available iron. Because of the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cancer, and organ transplantation, the number of patients at risk for this deadly infection is increasing. Despite aggressive therapy, which includes disfiguring surgical debridement and frequently adjunctive toxic antifungal therapy, the overall mortality rate is high. New strategies to prevent and treat mucormycosis are urgently needed. Understanding the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and the host response to invading hyphae ultimately will provide targets for novel therapeutic interventions. In this supplement, we review the current knowledge about the virulence traits used by the most common etiologic agent of mucormycosis, Rhizopus oryzae. Because patients with elevated serum levels of available iron are uniquely susceptible to mucormycosis and these infections are highly angioinvasive, emphasis is placed on the ability of the organism to acquire iron from the host and on its interactions with endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Several promising therapeutic strategies in preclinical stages are identified.
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