The number of viruses circulating in small isolated human populations may be reduced by viral extinctions and rare introductions. Here we used viral metagenomics to characterize the eukaryotic virome in feces from healthy children from a large urban center and from three Amerindian villages with minimal outside contact. Numerous human enteric viruses, mainly from the Picornaviridae and Caliciviridae families, were sequenced from each of the sites. Multiple children from the same villages shed closely related viruses reflecting frequent transmission clusters. Feces of isolated villagers also contained multiple viral genomes of unknown cellular origin from the Picornavirales order and CRESS-DNA group and higher levels of nematode and protozoan DNA. Despite cultural and geographic isolation, the diversity of enteric human viruses was therefore not reduced in these Amazonian villages. Frequent viral introductions and/or increased susceptibility to enteric infections may account for the complex fecal virome of Amerindian children in isolated villages.
The human cervical microbiome is complex, and its role in health and disease has just begun to be elucidated. In this study, 57 cervical swab samples from 19 HIV/HPV co-infected women were analyzed for both virome and bacteriome composition. Virome analysis focused on circular DNA viruses through rolling circle amplification followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Data were assigned to virus families and genera, and HPV types were identified. NGS data of bacterial 16S from a subset of 24 samples were assigned to operational taxonomic units and classified according to vaginal microbiome community state types (CSTs). Four viral families were found: Papillomaviridae, Anelloviridae, Genomoviridae, and Herpesviridae. Papillomavirus reads were more abundant in women with premalignant cervical lesions, which were also strongly associated with multiple (≥3) high-risk HPV infection. Anellovirus read abundance was negatively correlated with host CD4+ T-cell counts. The bacteriome revealed the presence of CST III and CST IV, and women with ≥1% frequency of genomovirus or herpesvirus reads displayed an increased risk of carrying CST IV. By characterizing the composition of the cervical circular DNA viruses and the bacteriome of HIV/HPV co-infected women, we identified putative interactions between these two microorganism communities and their associations with patients’ clinical characteristics, notably immunodeficiency status.
In the original version of this Article, the affiliation details for Eric Delwart were incorrectly given as ‘Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA and Amazonic Center for Research and Control of Tropical Diseases (CAICET), Puerto Ayacucho 7101, Venezuela’. The correct affiliations are ‘Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA and Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA’. This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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