The widely held assumption that any important scientific information would be available in English underlies the underuse of non-English-language science across disciplines. However, non-English-language science is expected to bring unique and valuable scientific information, especially in disciplines where the evidence is patchy, and for emergent issues where synthesising available evidence is an urgent challenge. Yet such contribution of non-English-language science to scientific communities and the application of science is rarely quantified. Here, we show that non-English-language studies provide crucial evidence for informing global biodiversity conservation. By screening 419,679 peer-reviewed papers in 16 languages, we identified 1,234 non-English-language studies providing evidence on the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation interventions, compared to 4,412 English-language studies identified with the same criteria. Relevant non-English-language studies are being published at an increasing rate in 6 out of the 12 languages where there were a sufficient number of relevant studies. Incorporating non-English-language studies can expand the geographical coverage (i.e., the number of 2° × 2° grid cells with relevant studies) of English-language evidence by 12% to 25%, especially in biodiverse regions, and taxonomic coverage (i.e., the number of species covered by the relevant studies) by 5% to 32%, although they do tend to be based on less robust study designs. Our results show that synthesising non-English-language studies is key to overcoming the widespread lack of local, context-dependent evidence and facilitating evidence-based conservation globally. We urge wider disciplines to rigorously reassess the untapped potential of non-English-language science in informing decisions to address other global challenges.
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Groundwater-derived solute fluxes to the ocean have long been assumed static and subordinate to riverine fluxes, if not neglected entirely, in marine isotope budgets. Here we present concentration and isotope data for Li, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba in coastal groundwaters to constrain the importance of groundwater discharge in mediating the magnitude and isotopic composition of terrestrially derived solute fluxes to the ocean. Data were extrapolated globally using three independent volumetric estimates of groundwater discharge to coastal waters, from which we estimate that groundwater-derived solute fluxes represent, at a minimum, 5% of riverine fluxes for Li, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba. The isotopic compositions of the groundwater-derived Mg, Ca, and Sr fluxes are distinct from global riverine averages, while Li and Ba fluxes are isotopically indistinguishable from rivers. These differences reflect a strong dependence on coastal lithology that should be considered a priority for parameterization in Earth-system models.
The topical administration of chemotherapeutics is a promising approach for the treatment of skin cancer; however, different pharmaceutical strategies are required to allow large amounts of drug to penetrate tumors. This work examined the potential of the anodic iontophoresis of doxorubicin-loaded cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (DOX-SLN) to increase the distribution and tumor penetration of DOX. A double-labeled cationic DOX-SLN composed of the lipids stearic acid and monoolein and a new BODIPY dye was prepared and characterized. The skin distribution and penetration of DOX were evaluated in vitro using confocal microscopy and vertical diffusion cells, respectively. The antitumor potential was evaluated in vivo through the anodic iontophoresis of DOX-SLN in squamous cell carcinoma induced in nude BALB/c mice. The encapsulation of DOX drastically altered the DOX partition coefficient and increased the distribution of DOX in the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum (SC). The association with iontophoresis created high-concentration drug reservoir zones in the follicles of the skin. Although the iontophoresis of a DOX solution increased the penetration of DOX in the viable epidermis by approximately 4-fold, the iontophoresis of cationic DOX-SLN increased the DOX penetration by approximately 50-fold. In vivo, the DOX-SLN iontophoretic treatment was effective in inhibiting tumor cell survival and tumor growth and was accompanied by an increase in keratinization and consequent cell death. These results indicate a strong and synergic effect of iontophoresis with DOX-SLN and provide a potential strategy for the treatment of skin cancer.
Authigenic clay minerals formed on or in the seafloor occur in every type of marine sediment. They are recognized to be a major sink of many elements in the ocean but are difficult to study directly due to dilution by detrital clay minerals. The extremely low dust fluxes and marine sedimentation rates in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) provide a unique opportunity to examine relatively undiluted authigenic clay. Here, using Mg isotopes and element concentrations combined with multivariate statistical modeling, we fingerprint and quantify the abundance of authigenic clay within SPG sediment. Key reactants include volcanic ash (source of reactive aluminium) and reactive biogenic silica on or shallowly buried within the seafloor. Our results, together with previous studies, suggest that global reorganizations of biogenic silica burial over the Cenozoic reduced marine authigenic clay formation, contributing to the rise in seawater Mg/Ca and decline in atmospheric CO2 over the past 50 million years.
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic Th1-mediated inflammatory mucocutaneous disease of the skin and oral mucosa that can have various clinical presentations. Lesions are usually bilateral and often painful. While cutaneous Lichen Planus (LP) lesions are self-limiting, the oral lesions are chronic and rarely remissive. The diagnosis of oral lichen planus (OLP) is often challenging, and confirmation by histopathological criterion is generally advised. The aim of our study was to identify the cytokines present in OLP-suggestive lesions and in non-specific inflammatory lesions (NSIL) used as controls. Moreover, assess cytokines protein levels and oral microbiota composition in whole saliva samples. Histopathological analysis, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were used as techniques to analyze the oral mucosal tissue samples. ELISA was conducted to analyze salivary cytokine levels and 16S rRNA sequencing was used to determine the salivary microbiome. As a result we observed larger number of infiltrated lymphocytes (p = 0.025), as well, more T CD4 lymphocytes in the epithelial tissue (p = 0.006) in OLP samples compared to NSIL. In addition, the OLP samples displayed more apoptotic cells compared to NSIL (p = 0.047). Regarding the cytokine analysis, IFN-γ and IL-33 were more expressed in OLP lesions than in NSIL samples (p < 0.001; p = 0.026). Furthermore, our results demonstrated higher levels of IFN-γ protein expression in the saliva of OLP group compared to controls (p = 0.0156). We also observed noted differences in the oral microbiota composition between OLP and NSIL saliva samples. In conclusion, OLP lesions presented larger numbers of apoptotic and inflammatory cells, higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-33 compared to NSIL, and these lesions also differ regarding oral microbiota composition. These results are consistent with the Th-1-mediated chronic inflammation nature of oral lichen planus investigated lesions and displayed unique features that could be used as a diagnostic tool.
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