BackgroundObesity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of
cardiovascular diseases; however, other factors, combined or not with obesity, can
influence cardiovascular risk and should be considered in cardiovascular risk
stratification in pediatrics. ObjectiveTo analyze the association between anthropometry measures and cardiovascular risk
factors, to investigate the determinants to changes in blood pressure (BP), and to
propose a prediction equation to waist circumference (WC) in children and
adolescents. MethodsWe evaluated 1,950 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18 years. Visceral fat was
assessed by WC and waist hip relationship, BP and body mass index (BMI). In a
randomly selected subsample of these volunteers (n = 578), total cholesterol,
glucose and triglycerides levels were evaluated. ResultsWC was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and BP (SBP r =
0.45 and DBP = 0.37; p < 0.001). Glycaemia and triglycerides showed a weak
correlation with WC (r = 0.110; p = 0.008 e r = 0.201; p < 0.001,
respectively). Total cholesterol did not correlate with any of the variables. Age,
BMI and WC were significant predictors on the regression models for BP (p <
0.001). We propose a WC prediction equation for children and adolescents: boys: y
= 17.243 + 0.316 (height in cm); girls: y = 25.197 + 0.256 (height in cm). ConclusionWC is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and presents itself as a risk
factor predictor of hypertension in children and adolescents. The WC prediction
equation proposed by us should be tested in future studies.
Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contributes to only 5–10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed.
ABSTRACT. Orthodontic appliances are usually made of stainless steel, which contains metals such as nickel, chromium and iron that have been associated with DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic toxicity associated with orthodontic fixed appliances in twenty healthy patients (16 ± 2.5 years) undergoing orthodontic treatment (fixed appliances -basic composition: stainless steel alloy), using the micronucleus (MN) and comet (CA) assays in buccal cells. Primary DNA damage level, as assessed by the CA, was low either before the beginning (1.5 ± 1.05 damage index -DI) or 10 days after the placement of the orthodontic appliance (2.5 ± 3.08 DI) and did not change significantly between these time points (P = 0.0913). Conversely, there was a significant increase in MN frequency 30 days after the beginning of the treatment (P = 0.0236). In this study, the MN assay was shown to be more sensitive than the CA. Other investigations are necessary in order to assess the genotoxic potential of orthodontic fixed appliances associated with long-term studies concerning these effects in orthodontic patients.
Background: During childhood and adolescence, physical inactivity, excess weight, and poor nutrition are risk factors for chronic diseases, especially obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Early intervention can prevent the development of these complications.
There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an association between diets rich in fresh fruit and vegetables and a decreased incidence of cancers. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and cyclophosphamide (CP) are alkylating agents that differ in their mode of action. MMS is a directly-acting, monofunctional agent, while CP is a bifunctional agent that requires metabolic activation to a reactive metabolite. To evaluate if orange juice could reduce DNA damage induced by these alkylating agents, mice were treated orally (by gavage) with MMS and CP, prior to and after treatment with orange juice. DNA damage was evaluated by the comet assay in peripheral white blood cells. Under these experimental conditions, orange juice reduced the extent of DNA damage caused by both mutagens. For MMS, the antigenotoxic effect of the orange juice was both protective (orange juice pre-treatment) and reparative (orange juice post-treatment); for CP, the effect was reparative only. The components of orange juice can have several biological effects, including acting as targets of toxicants and modulating metabolization/detoxification routes. Considering the different mechanisms of the action of the two drugs, different protective effects are suggested. These results demonstated the ability of the in vivo comet assay to detect in vivo modulation of MMS and CP mutagenicity by orange juice.
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