The present study evaluated the rickettsial infection among dogs living in the rural and urban areas of Monte Negro, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon. Canine sera were tested by the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using six rickettsial antigens: Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia felis. While the first three Rickettsia species are known to occur in the study site, the latter three species are known to occur in southeastern Brazil. For each serum, end point titer reacting with each Rickettsia antigen was determined. Serum showing for a Rickettsia species titer at least fourfold higher than that observed for any other Ricketttsia species was considered homologous to the first Rickettsia species or to a very closely related genotype. A total of 164 rural and 153 urban dogs were tested. Overall, 19 (11.6%) and 6 (3.9%) dogs from rural and urban areas, respectively, reacted positively to at least one Rickettsia species. In the rural area, three sera showed titers to R. parkeri at least four-fold higher than any of the other five antigens. These sera were considered to be homologous to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Using the same criteria, two rural sera were considered homologous to R. amblyommii, two other rural sera to R. rhipicephali, and one urban serum to R. parkeri. Because dogs living in the rural area of Monte Negro are commonly infested by the same tick species infesting humans, they indeed serve as sentinels for human rickettsial diseases. Thus, humans living in Monte Negro are likely to be infected by at least three Rickettsia species: R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, and R. rhipicephali. While R. parkeri is a known human pathogen, further studies are required to verify the potential role of R. amblyommii and R. rhipicephali as human pathogens.
The current study evaluated the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis Donatien and Lestoquard in domestic dogs, Canis familiaris L., and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from different areas of Brazil. In Monte Negro County (state of Rondônia, Brazilian western Amazon), the indirect immunofluorescence assay detected E. canis-reactive antibodies (titer > or = 40) in 58/153 (37.9%) and 40/161 (24.8%) dogs from the urban and rural areas, respectively. These values were significantly different between the two areas. Ticks from a household in the urban area of Monte Negro, and from households in three other localities (162-165 adult ticks per household) in the state of São Paulo (SP) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting an erlichial dsb gene fragment. The prevalence of infected ticks (given as minimal infection rate) was 2.3, 6.2, and 3.7% for populations 1 (Monte Negro), 2 (Jundiaí, SP), and 3 (São Paulo I, SP), respectively, which were statistically similar. In contrast, no infected tick was detected in population 4 (São Paulo II, SP). DNA sequences were determined for some of the PCR products generated from ticks and dogs from populations 1-3, being all identical to each other and to available sequences of E. canis in GenBank. These results reinforce previous records of E. canis-infecting dogs in Brazil. Natural infection of R. sanguineus ticks by E. canis is reported for the first time in Brazil, where this tick is the commonest species infesting dogs.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.