In the present work, the rear photoacoustic signal technique is used to determine thermal properties of human nails. The aging process of the human nail is analyzed through its thermal diffusivity and specific heat and using these results, thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity is determined. The study in vitro of this natural polymer showed a minimum for thermal properties to age about 20 years and an increase and possible saturation of them for ages over 50 years. The minimum value found for thermal diffusivity was close to 10 · 10 )4 cm 2 s )1 with saturation near 18 · 10 )4 cm 2 s )1 . Thermal conductivity and effusivity presents the same behavior.
Adapalene (ADAP) is an important drug widely used in the topical treatment of acne. It is a third-generation retinoid and provides keratolytic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseborrhoic action. However, some topical adverse effects such as erythema, dryness, and scaling have been reported with its commercial formula. In this sense, the microencapsulation of this drug using polyesters can circumvent its topical side effects and can lead to the enhancement of drug delivery into sebaceous glands. The goal of this work was to obtain ADAP-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microparticles prepared by a simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Formulations containing 10 and 20% of ADAP were successfully obtained and characterized by morphological, spectroscopic, and thermal studies. Microparticles presented encapsulation efficiency of ADAP above 98% and showed a smooth surface and spherical shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results presented no drug-polymer chemical bond, and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique showed a partial amorphization of the drug. ADAP permeation in the Strat-M membrane for transdermal diffusion testing was evaluated by photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) in the spectral region between 225 and 400 nm after 15 min and 3 h from the application of ADAP-loaded PCL formulations. PAS was successfully used for investigating the penetration of polymeric microparticles. In addition, microencapsulation decreased the in vitro transmembrane diffusion of ADAP.
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