Rescue of simian virus 40 (SV40) from hamster and murine cell lines transformed by nonirradiated or by ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated SV40 (10-s to 10-s survival) was studied. A combination of tests was employed to detect induction of SV40 synthesis: (i) co-cultivation with susceptible monkey kidney (CV-1) cells; (ii) treating mixtures of transformed and CV-1 cells with UV-irradiated Sendai virus (UV-Sendai) prior to co-cultivation; and (iii) plating untreated or UV-Sendaitreated mixtures of transformed and CV-1 cells with freshly trypsinized CV-1 cells. The first and second tests provided a measure of the total infectious SV40 yield per culture, and the third test provided a measure of the frequency of induction (fraction of transformed cells giving rise to infectious centers). With the combination of tests, SV40 was rescued in all trials from TSV-5 hamster cells, mKS-BU100 mouse cells, and from several lines of mouse kidney cells transformed by UV-irradiated SV40 (mKS-U lines). The frequency of induction was about 7 X 10-2 for TSV-5 cells, about 3 X 10-3 for mKS-BU100 cells, greater than 10-4 for the mKS-U lines which were "good" yielders, and about 10-s to 10-4 for the mKS-U lines which were "average" yielders. SV40 of a plaque type different from parental virus was rescued from four of the mKS-U cell lines. Virus was also easily rescued from: (i) tumor cells produced from the mKS-A line of transformed mouse kidney cells; (ii) mouse kidney cells transformed by SV40 which had been rescued from mKS-BU100 cells; and (iii) tumor cells (HATS) which had been produced by inoculating newborn hamsters with SV40 rescued from mKS-BU100 cells. The frequency of induction of HATS cells was of the same order of magnitude as the frequency of induction of TSV-5 cells. In a study of the kinetics of virus induction, it was shown that SV40 could be detected 28, 40, and 48.5 hr after UV-Sendai treatment of mixtures of CV-1 and TSV-5, HATS, or mKS-BU100 cells, respectively. Although all of the mKS-U lines contained the SV40-specific tumor antigen, some were poor virus yielders (SV40 was recovered in less than 50% of the trials) and five lines were rare virus yielders (SV40 recovered only once in four or more trials). Forty-eight mKS-U lines were nonyielders; SV40 was never recovered by any test used thus far. UV-Sendai-treated mixtures of pairs of nonyielder mKS-U lines with CV-1 cells also did not yield infectious virus. Various factors affecting rescue have been discussed. The mKS-U lines which were poor virus yielders, rare yielders, or which never yielded virus have been classified tentatively as "defective lysogens" which contain mutational lesions at loci essential for detachment of SV40 from integration sites or for SV40 replication, or for both. A number of simian virus 40 (SV40)-transthesis, probably by increasing cell fusion and formed cell lines which do not spontaneously heterokaryon formation. Cloning experiments produce virus can be induced to do so when and characterization of SV40 rescued from these cocultivated with s...
When simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed mouse kidney cells (mKS) were grown in the presence of susceptible indicator cells, SV40 was readily recovered from: (i) 15 transformed cell lines, (ii) transformed cells subcultured 45 times over a 7-month period in medium containing antiviral serum and bromodeoxyuridine (dBU), (iii)
The incorporation of
H-dT) into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been studied in uninfected confluent monolayer cultures of monkey kidney and mouse kidney cells, simian virus 40 (SV40)-infected cells, and in SV40-transformed mouse kidney cells. Radioautographic measurements revealed that during the period from 28 to 51 hr after productive SV40 infection of monkey kidney cultures about 80% of the cells synthesized DNA, compared to about 16% in uninfected cultures. At 28 to 43 hr after abortive SV40 infection of mouse kidney cultures, 24 to 37% of the cells synthesized DNA, compared to about 6 to 8% in uninfected cultures. The infected monkey kidney and mouse kidney cultures, respectively, incorporated about 5 to 10 times and 3 to 5 times as much
H-dT into DNA as did uninfected cultures. Moreover, the net DNA synthesized by SV40-infected monkey kidney cultures, estimated by colorimetric methods, substantially exceeded that of uninfected cultures.
Nitrocellulose chromatography and band centrifugation experiments were performed to elucidate the kinds of DNA synthesized in the cultures. In uninfected monkey kidney cultures and at 2 to 12 hr after SV40 infection, almost all of the
H-dT labeled DNA sedimented more rapidly than SV40 DNA, and the radioactive DNA was denatured by heating for 12 min at 100 C (cellular DNA). Almost all of the labeled DNA obtained from abortively infected mouse kidney cultures and from SV40-transformed cells also had the properties of cellular DNA. However, approximately one-third to one-half of the labeled DNA obtained from monkey kidney cultures 28 to 51 hr after infection sedimented more slowly than cellular DNA and was not denatured by the heating (SV40 DNA). It is concluded that cellular DNA synthesis was induced during either the productive or abortive SV40 infections.
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