Abstract. We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008(Marsaleix et al., , 2009a following the simplified equations of , which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c). These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III ® (Tolman, 2008(Tolman, , 2009Ardhuin et al., 2010) and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999). The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009) Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea) for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0-10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0-15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the inner shelf are less visible since wind and regional circulation seem to be the predominant forcings. Besides, a discrepancy between model and observations is noted at that scale, possibly linked to an underestimation of the wind stress.This three-dimensional method allows a good representation of vertical current profiles and permits the calculation of the shear stress associated with waves and currents. Future work will focus on the combination with a sediment transport model.
In this paper, a decoupled model of a train including an on-board hybrid accumulation system is presented to be used in DC traction networks. The train and the accumulation system behavior are modeled separately, and the results are then combined in order to study the effect of the whole system on the traction electrical network. The model is designed specifically to be used with power flow solvers for planning purposes. The validation has been carried out comparing the results with other methods previously developed and also with experimental measurements. A detailed description of the power flow solver is beyond the scope of this work, but it must be remarked that the model must by used with a solver able to cope with the non-linear and non-smooth characteristics of the model. In this specific case, a modified current injection-based power flow solver has been used. The solver is able to incorporate also non-reversible substations, which are the most common devices used currently for feeding DC systems. The effect of the on-board accumulation systems on the network efficiency will be analyzed using different real scenarios.
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