The Fundão tailings dam in the Germano iron mining complex (Mariana, Brazil) collapsed on the afternoon of 5 November 2015, and around 32.6 million cubic meters of mining waste spilled from the dam, causing polluion with mining waste along a trajectory of 668 km, extending to the Atlantic Ocean. The Sela & Tulipa and Selinha dikes, and the main Germano tailings dam, were directly or indirectly affected by the accident. This work presents an investigation using Advanced-Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (A-DInSAR) techniques for risk assessment in these critical structures during 18 months after the catastrophic event. The approach was based on the integration of SBAS (Small Baseline Subset) and PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) techniques, aiming at detecting linear and nonlinear ground displacements in these mining structures. It used a set of 48 TerraSAR-X images acquired on ascending mode from 11 November 2015 to 15 May 2017. The results provided by the A-DInSAR analysis indicated an overall stability in the dikes and in the main wall of Germano tailings dam, which is in agreement with in situ topographic monitoring. In addition, it was possible to detect areas within the reservoir showing accumulated values of up to −125 mm of subsidence, probably caused by settlements of the waste dry material due to the interruption of the mining waste deposition, and values up to −80 mm on auxiliary dikes, probably caused by continuous traffic of heavy equipment. The spatiotemporal information of surface displacement of this large mining structure can be used for future operational planning and risk control.
Difficulties in acquiring a complete aerial photography coverage on a regular basis in the Brazilian Amazon due to adverse environmental conditions affect the quality of the national topographic database. As a consequence, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or re-mapped. In this research, altimetric information derived from RADARSAT-1 (Fine and Standard modes), SRTM3 (3 arc-seconds) and ASTER (band 3N-3B) was evaluated for topographic mapping in two sites located in the region: Serra dos Carajás (mountainous relief) and Tapajós National Forest (flat terrain). The quality of the information produced from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs) for the modeling of the stereoscopic DEMs (RADARSAT-1, ASTER) and as Independent Check Points (ICPs) for the calculation of accuracies of the products. The accuracies were estimated by comparison of the DEMs values and real elevation values given by ICPs. The analysis was performed following two approaches: (1) the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the overall classification of the DEMs considering the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards (PEC) limits and, (2) calculations of trend analysis and accuracy based on a methodology that takes into account computed discrepancies and standard deviations. The investigation has shown that for flat relief, the altimetric accuracy of SRTM3 and Fine RADARSAT-1 DEMs fulfilled the PEC requirements for 1:100,000 A Class Map. However, for mountainous terrain, only the altimetry of SRTM3 and ASTER fulfilled these requirements. In addition, the performance of ASTER was slightly superior to SRTM3. However it is important to consider the difficulties in the acquisition of good stereo-pairs with optical data in the Amazon and the additional cost (GCPs) to produce ASTER DEMs. Despite showing systematic errors, the findings justify the usage of SRTM3 as a primary elevation source for semi-detailed topographic mapping in the region. It is suggested a combination of altimetry derived for SRTM3 and planimetry extracted from high-resolution SAR (ALOS/PALSAR, TerraSAR-X, RADARSAT-2) or if available optical data for semi-detailed topographic mapping programs in the Brazilian Amazon, where terrain information is seldom available or presents low quality.
Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) has been used to monitor surface deformations in open pit mines and tailings dams. In this paper, ground deformations have been detected on the area of tailings Dam-I at the Córrego do Feijão Mine (Brumadinho, Brazil) before its catastrophic failure occurred on 25 January 2019. Two techniques optimized for different scattering models, SBAS (Small BAseline Subset) and PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry), were used to perform the analysis based on 26 Sentinel-1B images in Interferometric Wide Swath (IW) mode, which were acquired on descending orbits from 03 March 2018 to 22 January 2019. A WorldDEM Digital Surface Model (DSM) product was used to remove the topographic phase component. The results provided by both techniques showed a synoptic and informative view of the deformation process affecting the study area, with the detection of persistent trends of deformation on the crest, middle, and bottom sectors of the dam face until its collapse, as well as the settlements on the tailings. It is worth noting the detection of an acceleration in the displacement time-series for a short period near the failure. The maximum accumulated displacements detected along the downstream slope face were −39 mm (SBAS) and −48 mm (PSI). It is reasonable to consider that Sentinel-1 would provide decision makers with complementary motion information to the in situ monitoring system for risk assessment and for a better understanding of the ongoing instability phenomena affecting the tailings dam.
RESUMO -Objetivou-se determinar a eficiência do teste da libido realizado em curral em comparação ao teste realizado a campo e relacioná-los à taxa de gestação em estação de monta de 120 dias. Treze touros aptos à reprodução foram submetidos ao teste da libido em curral por 3 horas. Desses touros, nove foram submetidos à avaliação a campo na proporção touro:vaca IntroduçãoA pecuária brasileira possui um rebanho de aproximadamente 185 milhões de bovinos (IBGE, 2004), sendo 81% animais de corte, na maioria azebuados com predominância da raça Nelore, o que pode ser atribuído à precocidade e à alta prolificidade da raça e também à adaptabilidade a diferentes condições de criação e manejo no Brasil tropical (Vale Filho, 1997).Considerando que 55% do rebanho brasileiro é composto de fêmeas em idade reprodutiva (Anualpec, 2002) e que apenas 7% delas são inseminadas (Asbia, 2003), pode-se afirmar que 93% das fêmeas são cobertas em manejo de monta natural. Dessa forma, o touro apresenta bastante
RESUMO -Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos dos níveis de cálcio nas rações sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 216 poedeiras da linhagem Lohmann Brown no período de 39 a 55 semanas de idade. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, composto de seis níveis de cálcio (3,0; 3,4; 3,8; 4,2; 4,6; 5,0%) e seis repetições de seis aves por parcela. Os níveis de cálcio avaliados não influenciaram os parâmetros produtivos, mas afetaram significativamente as porcentagens de albúmen e casca do ovo. O aumento do cálcio na dieta promove incremento na qualidade da casca do ovo em relação aos demais componentes do ovo.Recomenda-se nível de 4,3% de cálcio em dietas para poedeiras semipesadas após o pico de postura.Palavras-chave: exigência, produção de ovos, qualidade da casca Levels of calcium in diets for brown layers post-peak production ABSTRACT -Two hundred and sixteen layers were raised from 39 to 55 weeks of age to study the effects of levels of calcium in the rations on performance and eggs quality of brown commercial layers. A completely randomized experimental design were used with six levels of calcium (3.0; 3.4; 3.8; 4.2; 4.6 and 5.0%) and six replicates of six layers hens. There was no effect of calcium levels on hen performance, however significantly affected the percentage of albumen and egg shell. The increase of calcium in the diet promoted increment in egg shell quality in relationship to other eggs components. The calcium level of 4.3% is recommended for brown layer hens after production peak.Key Words: eggs production, egg shell quality, requirements IntroduçãoGalinhas poedeiras modernas são muito sensíveis às variações dos níveis nutricionais da dieta. Em estudos com essas aves, o que se busca é maior produção de ovos, boa conversão alimentar e menor porcentagem de ovos defeituosos. A suplementação mineral pode ser uma alternativa para melhorar o desempenho destas aves e da casca dos ovos.Em virtude dos avanços no melhoramento genético, na nutrição, nos fatores de ambiência e no manejo, que resultam em maior eficiência de produção, torna-se necessária revisão periódica das exigências de cálcio para poedeiras, uma vez que este mineral é fundamental para o desenvolvimento ósseo durante a fase de crescimento da ave e para formação da casca do ovo durante a fase de postura e ainda participa nos processos metabólicos. Estudos dessa natureza têm repercussão nos aspectos econômi-cos das rações e contribuem para minimizar os custos de produção e reduzir possíveis impactos no meio ambiente. De acordo com Hunton (2004), qualquer defeito na casca pode comprometer o valor do ovo tanto para a produção de pintos de 1 dia como para a utilização na alimentação.A suplementação de macrominerais em rações para aves tem sofrido modificações, não somente em razão do melhoramento genético mas também em virtude da evolução das pesquisas, que têm demonstrado a necessidade do conhecimento das características físicas e químicas das fontes de cá...
This study evaluates the potential of C-and L-band polarimetric SAR data for the discrimination of iron-mineralized laterites in the Brazilian Amazon region. The study area is the N1 plateau located on the northern border of the Carajá s Mineral Province, the most important Brazilian mineral province which has numerous mineral deposits, particularly the world's largest iron deposits. The plateau is covered by low-density savanna-type vegetation (campus rupestres) which contrasts visibly with the dense equatorial forest. The laterites are subdivided into three units: chemical crust, iron-ore duricrust, and hematite, of which only the latter two are of economic interest. Full polarimetric data from the airborne R99B sensor of the SIVAM/CENSIPAM (L-band) system and the RADARSAT-2 satellite (C-band) were evaluated. The study focused on an assessment of distinct schemes for digital classification based on decomposition theory and hybrid approach, which incorporates statistical analysis as input data derived from the target decomposition modeling. The results indicated that the polarimetric classifications presented a poor performance, with global Kappa values below 0.20. The accuracy for the identification of units of economic interest varied from 55% to 89%, albeit with high commission error values. In addition, the results using L-band were considered superior OPEN ACCESS Remote Sens. 2013, 5 3102 compared to C-band, which suggest that the roughness scale for laterite discrimination in the area is nearer to L than to C-band.
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