Our results are consistent with other studies reporting increased high-risk HPV detection rates among pregnant women. HPV-positive status in pregnant and nonpregnant women appears to be influenced by age. The decrease in HPV positivity by number of pregnancies in both currently pregnant and nonpregnant women is consistent with a possible effect of immune protection as a result of earlier HPV infections. Despite lack of information about a woman's history of sexual behavior, these data support the hypothesis that an alteration of immunologic responses during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of HPV acquisition or reactivation.
IntroductionIn Mexico, breast cancer (BC) is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. Methods An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA) was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause).
ResultsThe factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 -4.35); early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 -2.00); old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 -13.98) and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 -10.79). In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 -0.70).
ConclusionsThis study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women's lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.
Objective. To determine the major features of sexual behavior in men from Mexico City, such as the number of sexual partners, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and beliefs on AIDS. Material and methods. A transversal epidemiologic study was conducted in 1995 based on multistage sampling with conglomerates. A total of 1 377 males from 15 to 49 years of age was interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. Statistics such as Student's test and χ 2 were applied to determine significance. Results. Subject mean age was 17.7 years (SD= 2.8 years) Overall proportion of condom use in the last intercourse was 24.6% depending on the type of partner: 18.8% used it with regular partners and 62.5% with multiple partners. Symptoms suggesting gonococcal uretritis were found in 2%. Finally, 97.5% understood the meaning of AIDS and knew some protective measures against infection. Conclusions. Some risky characteristics of sexual behavior were identified concerning the transmission of STD such as multiple sexual partners, not using condom and STD antecedents.
Although some characteristics of intra- and extra-hospital MM cases are similar, a greater proportion of deaths were extra-hospital. This could be related to the high percentage of the population that lives in rural or marginalized areas, which in addition to certain cultural aspects (related to the fact that most of the population is indigenous) may impede access to health services. The results of this study can be useful for determining intervention strategies to prevent maternal mortality in intra- and extra-hospital contexts in Guatemala.
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