Junior, IF. Combined training (aerobic plus strength) potentiates a reduction in body fat but demonstrates no difference on the lipid profile in postmenopausal women when compared with aerobic training with a similar training load. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 226-234, 2016-The aim of this study was to verify the effects of aerobic and combined training on the body composition and lipid profile of obese postmenopausal women and to analyze which of these models is more effective after equalizing the training load. Sixty-five postmenopausal women (age = 61.0 6 6.3 years) were divided into 3 groups: aerobic training (AT, n = 15), combined training (CT [strength + aerobic], n = 32), and control group (CG, n = 18). Their body composition upper body fat (TF), fat mass (FM), percentage of FM, and fat-free mass (FFM) were estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The lipid profile, total cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference in the TF (AT = 24.4%, CT = 24.4%, and CG = 1.0%, p = 0.001) and FFM (AT = 1.7%, CT = 2.6%, and CG = 21.4%, p = 0.0001) between the experimental and the control groups. Regarding the percentage of body fat, there was a statistically significant difference only between the CT and CG groups (AT = 22.8%, CT = 23.9%, and CG = 0.31%; p = 0.004). When training loads were equalized, the aerobic and combined training decreased core fat and increased FFM, but only the combined training potentiated a reduction in percentage of body fat in obese postmenopausal women after the training program. High-density lipoprotein-c levels increased in the combined group, and the chol/HDL ratio (atherogenic index) decreased in the aerobic group; however, there were no significant differences between the intervention programs. Taken together, both the exercise training programs were effective for improving body composition and inducing an antiatherogenic status.
This study aimed to quantify the weekly training load distributions according to match location, opponent standard, and match outcome in professional soccer players. Rate-of-perceived-exertion-based training load (sRPE) and distance- and accelerometry-based measures were monitored daily during 52 training sessions and 11 matches performed by 23 players. Athletes who played ≥ 60 min during non-congested weeks were considered for data analysis. The training days close to away matches (e.g., one day before the match = MD-1) presented greater sRPE, distance-based volume measures, and mechanical work (player load) compared to the training days close to home matches (p = 0.001−0.002; effect size (ES) = medium−large). The most distant days of the home matches (e.g., five days before the match = MD-5) presented higher internal and external loads than before away matches (p = 0.002−0.003, ES = medium). Higher sRPE, distance-based volume measures, and mechanical work were found during the middle of the week (e.g., three days before the match, MD-3) before playing against bottom vs. medium-ranking teams (p = 0.001−0.01, ES = small−medium). These metrics were lower in MD-5 before matches against bottom vs. medium-ranking opponents (p = 0.001, ES = medium). Higher values of all external load measures were observed during the training session before winning matches (MD-1) compared to a draw or loss (p < 0.001−0.001, ES = medium−large). In conclusion, the training load distribution throughout the week varied considerably according to match-contextual factors.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a predictor of anaerobic capacity, compare it to the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and to compare the RAST's parameters with the parameters of 30-s all-out tethered running on a treadmill. 39 (17.0±1.4 years) soccer players participated in this study. The participants underwent an incremental test, 10 submaximal efforts [50-95% of velocity correspondent to VO(2MAX) (vVO(2MAX))] and one supramaximal effort at 110% of vVO(2MAX) for the determination of MAOD. Furthermore, the athletes performed the RAST. In the second stage the 30-s all-out tethered running was performed on a treadmill (30-s all-out), and compared with RAST. No significant correlation was observed between MAOD and RAST parameters. However, significant correlations were found between the power of the fifth effort (P5) of RAST with peak and mean power of 30-s all-out (r=0.73 and 0.50; p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the parameters from RAST do not have an association with MAOD, suggesting that this method should not be used to evaluate anaerobic capacity. Although the correlations between RAST parameters with 30-s all-out do reinforce the RAST as an evaluation method of anaerobic metabolism, such as anaerobic power.
Total anaerobic contribution (TAn) can be assessed by accumulated oxygen deficit, and through sum of glycolytic and phosphagen contribution which enable the evaluation of TAn without influences on mechanical parameters. However, little is known about the difference of TAn within swimming distances. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to determine and compare the TAn in different performances using the backward extrapolation technique and amount of lactate accumulated during exercise, and relate it with swimming performance. Fourteen competitive swimmers performed five maximal front crawl swims of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 m. The total phosphagen (AnAl) and glycolytic (AnLa) contributions were assumed as the fast component of post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCFAST) and amount of blood lactate accumulated during exercise, respectively. TAn was the sum of AnAl and AnLa. Significantly lower values of AnLa were observed in the 800 m (p < 0.01) than other distances. For AnAl, the 50 m performance presented the lowest values, followed by 100 and 800 m (p < 0.01). The highest values of AnAl were observed in the 200 and 400 m (p > 0.13). The TAn was significantly higher in the 200 and 400 m performances than observed at 50 and 800 m (p < 0.01). Anaerobic contributions were correlated with 50, 100, 200, and 400 m performances (p < 0.01). The AnAl contribution was not correlated with 400 m performance. Anaerobic parameters were not correlated with 800 m performance. In conclusion, the highest values of anaerobic contribution were observed in the 200 and 400 m distances. Moreover, TAn is important to performances below 400 m, and may be used in training routines.
The main aim of this investigation was to verify the relationship of the variables measured during a 3-minute all-out test with aerobic (i.e., peak oxygen uptake [(Equation is included in full-text article.)] and intensity corresponding to the lactate minimum [LMI]) and anaerobic parameters (i.e., anaerobic work) measured during a 400-m maximal performance. To measure force continually and to avoid the possible influences caused by turns, the 3-minute all-out effort was performed in tethered swimming. Thirty swimmers performed the following tests: (a) a 3-minute all-out tethered swimming test to determine the final force (equivalent to critical force: CF3-MIN) and the work performed above CF3-MIN (W'3-MIN), (b) a LMI protocol to determine the LMI during front crawl swimming, and (c) a 400-m maximal test to determine the (Equation is included in full-text article.)and total anaerobic contribution (WANA). Correlations between the variables were tested using the Pearson's correlation test (p ≤ 0.05). CF3-MIN (73.9 ± 13.2 N) presented a high correlation with the LMI (1.33 ± 0.08 m·s; p = 0.01) and (Equation is included in full-text article.)(4.5 ± 1.2 L·min; p = 0.01). However, the W'3-MIN (1,943.2 ± 719.2 N·s) was only moderately correlated with LMI (p = 0.02) and (Equation is included in full-text article.)(p = 0.01). In summary, CF3-MIN determined during the 3-minute all-out effort is associated with oxidative metabolism and can be used to estimate the aerobic capacity of swimmers. In contrast, the anaerobic component of this model (W'3-MIN) is not correlated with WANA.
Our aims were to compare physiological parameters from the laboratory environment (LaB) and simulated goalball games (GaM), test relationships between physiological parameters in the laboratory and game technical performance (GTP), and examine the associations between physiological and technical responses during games. Seven elite athletes from the Brazilian National Team performed in LaB environment; (i) an incremental test to determine peak oxygen consumption (O2PEAK), its corresponding speed, and peak blood lactate concentration and (ii) submaximal and supramaximal efforts to estimate maximal anaerobic contribution (AnC). In GaM condition, simulated games were also performed to determine physiological responses throughout the game, and to analyze the GTP (number of throws, defenses, recovery, and density of actions). No correlations (unclear) were found between laboratory and games analyses for O2PEAK [47.3 (17.2) vs. 25.8 (18.2) mL⋅Kg-1⋅min-1], peak blood lactate concentrations [10.2 (5.4) vs. 2.0 (0.7) mM], and total AnC [21.0 (14.0) vs. 4.8 (6.1) mL Kg-1]. O2PEAK in the laboratory condition presented very likely correlations with throw and recovery frequency in games (r = -0.87 and confidence interval [CI] = 0.41; r = -0.90 and CI = 0.35; respectively). Oxygen consumption remained above baseline while blood lactate concentration remained unchanged during the games. The very likely correlation between anaerobic alactic contribution and action density (r = 0.95 and CI = 0.25) highlights the importance of the alactic metabolism. In general, our study demonstrates that goalball can be characterized as a high-intensity intermittent effort, where athlete performance is based on aerobic metabolism predominance while determinant actions are supplied by the anaerobic alactic metabolism. Specifically, higher values of LaB vs. GaM highlighted the need for standardization of specific protocols for goalball evaluation, mainly for the reproduction of ecologically valid values. In addition, O2PEAK correlated with recovery frequency in the LaB condition, demonstrating that passive or low-intensity recovery between actions is fundamental to maintain performance.
The aims of the present study were 1) to evaluate the effects of 11 weeks of a typical free-swimming training program on aerobic and stroke parameters determined in tethered swimming (Study 1; n=13) and 2) to investigate the responses of tethered swimming efforts, in addition to free-swimming sessions, through 7 weeks of training (Study 2; n=21). In both studies, subjects performed a graded exercise test in tethered swimming (GET) to determine anaerobic threshold (AnT), stroke rate at AnT (SR), peak force at GET (PF) and peak blood lactate ([La-]). Participants also swam 100-, 200- and 400-m lengths to evaluate performance. In Study 2, swimmers were divided into control (i. e., only free-swimming; GC [n=11]) and tethered swimming group (i. e., 50% of the main session; G [n=10]). The results of Study 1 demonstrate that AnT, PF, [La] and 200-m performance were improved with free-swimming training. The SR decreased with training. In Study 2, free-swimming performance and most of the graded exercise test parameters were not altered in either group. However, [La-] improved only for G. These results demonstrate that aerobic parameters obtained in tethered swimming can be used to evaluate free-swimming training responses, and the addition of tethered efforts during training routine improves the lactate production capacity of swimmers.
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