STI571 is well tolerated and has significant antileukemic activity in patients with CML in whom treatment with interferon alfa had failed. Our results provide evidence of the essential role of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity in CML and demonstrate the potential for the development of anticancer drugs based on the specific molecular abnormality present in a human cancer.
a b s t r a c tObjective: In this study we execute a rational screen to identify Chinese medical herbs that are commonly used in treating viral respiratory infections and also contain compounds that might directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), an ongoing novel coronavirus that causes pneumonia. Methods: There were two main steps in the screening process. In the first step we conducted a literature search for natural compounds that had been biologically confirmed as against sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Resulting compounds were cross-checked for listing in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database. Compounds meeting both requirements were subjected to absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) evaluation to verify that oral administration would be effective. Next, a docking analysis was used to test whether the compound had the potential for direct 2019-nCoV protein interaction. In the second step we searched Chinese herbal databases to identify plants containing the selected compounds. Plants containing 2 or more of the compounds identified in our screen were then checked against the catalogue for classic herbal usage. Finally, network pharmacology analysis was used to predict the general in vivo effects of each selected herb. Results: Of the natural compounds screened, 13 that exist in traditional Chinese medicines were also found to have potential anti-2019-nCoV activity. Further, 125 Chinese herbs were found to contain 2 or more of these 13 compounds. Of these 125 herbs, 26 are classically catalogued as treating viral respiratory infections. Network pharmacology analysis predicted that the general in vivo roles of these 26 herbal plants were related to regulating viral infection, immune/inflammation reactions and hypoxia response. Conclusion: Chinese herbal treatments classically used for treating viral respiratory infection might contain direct anti-2019-nCoV compounds.
ABSTRACT:Imatinib mesylate (GLEEVEC, GLIVEC, formerly STI571) has demonstrated unprecedented efficacy as first-line therapy for treatment for all phases of chronic myelogenous leukemia and metastatic and unresectable malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Disposition and biotransformation of imatinib were studied in four male healthy volunteers after a single oral dose of 239 mg of 14 C-labeled imatinib mesylate. Biological fluids were analyzed for total radioactivity, imatinib, and its main metabolite CGP74588. Metabolite patterns were determined by radio-high-performance liquid chromatography with off-line microplate solid scintillation counting and characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Imatinib treatment was well tolerated without serious adverse events. Absorption was rapid (t max 1-2 h) and complete with imatinib as the major radioactive compound in plasma. Maximum plasma concentrations were 0.921 ؎ 0.095 g/ml (mean ؎ S.D., n ؍ 4) for imatinib and 0.115 ؎ 0.026 g/ml for the pharmacologically active N-desmethyl metabolite (CGP74588). Mean plasma terminal elimination half-lives were 13.5 ؎ 0.9 h for imatinib, 20.6 ؎ 1.7 h for CGP74588, and 57.3 ؎ 12.5 h for 14 C radioactivity. Imatinib was predominantly cleared through oxidative metabolism. Approximately 65 and 9% of total systemic exposure [AUC 0-24 h (area under the concentration time curve) of radioactivity] corresponded to imatinib and CGP74588, respectively. The remaining proportion corresponded mainly to oxidized derivatives of imatinib and CGP74588. Imatinib and its metabolites were excreted predominantly via the biliary-fecal route. Excretion of radioactivity was slow with a mean radiocarbon recovery of 80% within 7 days (67% in feces, 13% in urine). Approximately 28 and 13% of the dose in the excreta corresponded to imatinib and CGP74588, respectively.
Increasing drought and extreme rainfall are major threats to maize production in the United States. However, compared to drought impact, the impact of excessive rainfall on crop yield remains unresolved. Here, we present observational evidence from crop yield and insurance data that excessive rainfall can reduce maize yield up to −34% (−17 ± 3% on average) in the United States relative to the expected yield from the long‐term trend, comparable to the up to −37% loss by extreme drought (−32 ± 2% on average) from 1981 to 2016. Drought consistently decreases maize yield due to water deficiency and concurrent heat, with greater yield loss for rainfed maize in wetter areas. Excessive rainfall can have either negative or positive impact on crop yield, and its sign varies regionally. Excessive rainfall decreases maize yield significantly in cooler areas in conjunction with poorly drained soils, and such yield loss gets exacerbated under the condition of high preseason soil water storage. Current process‐based crop models cannot capture the yield loss from excessive rainfall and overestimate yield under wet conditions. Our results highlight the need for improved understanding and modeling of the excessive rainfall impact on crop yield.
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