Introduction Post-operative CSF leak still represents the main drawback of Endoscopic Endonasal Approach (EEA), and different reconstructive strategies have been proposed in order to decrease its rate. Objective To critically analyze the effectiveness of different adopted reconstruction strategies in patients that underwent EEA. Materials and methods Adult patients with skull base tumor surgically treated with EEA were retrospectively analyzed. Data recorded for each case concerned patient demographics, type of surgical approach, histotype, anatomical site of surgical approach, intra-operative CSF leak grade (no leak (INL), low flow (ILFL), high flow (IHFL)), reconstructive adopted strategy, Lumbar Drain positioning, post-operative CSF leak rate and intra/post-operative complications. Results A total number of 521 patients (January 2012-December 2019) was included. Intra-operative CSF leak grade showed to be associated with post-operative CSF leak rate. In particular, the risk to observe a post-operative CSF leak was higher when IHFL was encountered (25,5%; Exp(B) 16.25). In particular, vascularized multilayered reconstruction and fat use showed to be effective in lowering post-operative CSF leaks in IHFL (p 0.02). No differences were found considering INL and ILFL groups. Yearly post-operative CSF leak rate analysis showed a significative decreasing trend. Conclusion Intra-operative CSF leak grade strongly affected post-operative CSF leak rate. Multilayer reconstruction with fat and naso-septal flap could reduce the rate of CSF leak in high risk patients. Reconstructive strategies should be tailored according also to the type and the anatomical site of the approach.
Study Design: Literature review. Objectives: An increasing number of obese patients requires operative care for degenerative spinal disorders. The aim of this review is to analyze the available evidence regarding the role of obesity on outcomes after spine surgery. Peri-operative complications and clinical results are evaluated for both cervical and lumbar surgery. Furthermore, the contribution of MIS techniques for lumbar surgery to play a role in reducing risks has been analyzed. Methods: Only articles published in English in the last 10 years were reviewed. Inclusion criteria of the references were based on the scope of this review, according to PRISMA guidelines. Moreover, only paper analyzing obesity-related complications in spine surgery have been selected and thoroughly reviewed. Each article was classified according to its rating of evidence using the Sacket Grading System. Results: A total number of 1636 articles were found, but only 130 of them were considered to be relevant after thorough evaluation and according to PRISMA checklist. The majority of the included papers were classified according to the Sacket Grading System as Level 2 (Retrospective Studies). Conclusion: Evidence suggest that obese patients could benefit from spine surgery and outcomes be satisfactory. A higher rate of peri-operative complications is reported among obese patients, especially in posterior approaches. The use of MIS techniques plays a key role in order to reduce surgical risks. Further studies should evaluate the role of multidisciplinary counseling between spine surgeons, nutritionists and bariatric surgeons, in order to plan proper weight loss before elective spine surgery.
Purpose Spinal aneurysms are rare vascular malformations, commonly associated with spinal AVMs. AVM-associated spinal aneurysms are burdened by significant morbidity. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the best treatment strategy for these uncommon vascular lesions and to report an illustrative case. Methods We reviewed clinical and radiological data of a patient surgically treated at our institution for a spinal AVM with an associated prenidal aneurysm. According to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review has been performed in order to discuss the best management AVM-associated prenidal aneurysms. Results In the reported case, the aneurysm showed spontaneous regression at follow-up after surgical removal of the AVM. Only 6 articles reported management of spinal prenidal AVM-associated aneurysms. Basing on our experience and data from literature, surgical treatment of the aneurysm may be indicated along with the resection of the AVM if the aneurysm is close to the nidus. Conversely, if the aneurysm is far away from the nidus or in an unfavorable position, resection of the nidus only may lead to aneurysm regression as in the reported case. Conclusions The treatment strategy for AVM-associated spinal aneurysms should be tailored on the single patient. In presence of large aneurysms that cause mass-effect symptoms, when rupture of the aneurysm is suspected or when treatment of the AVM is not proposable, direct treatment of the aneurysm should be considered. Otherwise, when complete resection of the nidus is performed, the eventually associated unruptured aneurysms located in challenging positions can be safely managed conservatively.
Background: Cavernous malformations generally occur in brain parenchyma but rarely these lesions arise from cranial nerves (CNs). Case Description: This paper described a case of a woman presented with III CN dysfunction due to the presence of a right III CN cavernoma. Surgical treatment with nerve sparing gross total resection was performed. A 3-month follow-up was documented. Conclusion: Only few cases of CNs cavernomas have been described in the literature. These lesions have been described to show a more aggressive behavior compared to intraparenchymal cavernomas, especially in symptomatic patients. Differential diagnosis and surgical treatment could be challenging, especially trying to preserve nerve integrity and function.
Background Endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy (EEO) has been described as a potential approach for craniovertebral junction (CVJ) disease which could cause anterior bulbomedullary compression and encroaching. Due to the atlantoaxial junction’s uniqueness and complex biomechanics, treating CVJ pathologies uncovers the challenge of preventing C1–C2 instability. A large series of patients treated with endonasal odontoidectomy is reported, analyzing the feasibility and necessity of whether or not to perform posterior stabilization. Furthermore, the focus is on the long-term follow-up, especially those whom only underwent partial C1 arch preservation without posterior fixation. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of patients with ventral spinal cord compression for non-reducible CVJ malformation, consecutively treated with EEO from July 2011 to March 2019. Postoperative dynamic X-ray and CT scans were obtained in each case in order to document CVJ decompression as well as to exclude instability. The anterior atlas‐dens interval, posterior atlas‐dens interval and C1–C2 total lateral overhang were measured as a morphological criteria to determine upper cervical spine stability. Results Twenty-one patients (11:10 F:M) with a mean age of 60.6 years old at the time of surgery (range 34–84 years) encountered the inclusion criteria. For all 21 patients, a successful decompression was achieved at the first surgery. In 11 patients, the partial C1 arch integrity did not require a posterior cervical instrumentation on the bases of postoperative and constant follow-up radiological examination. In 13 cases, an improvement of motor function was recorded at the time of discharge. Only one patient had further motor function improvement at follow-up. Among the patients that did not show any significant motor change at discharge, 4 patients showed an improvement at the last follow-up. Conclusions The outcomes, even in C1 arch preservation without posterior fixation, are promising, and it could be said that the endonasal route potentially represents a valid option to treat lesions above the nasopalatine line.
IntroductionFor spine surgeons, dealing with unstable cervical spine has been usually challenging, and this becomes more difficult when facing a primary craniovertebral junction tumor. Primary spine tumor surgery should always include column reconstruction in order to guarantee biomechanical stability of the spine, but surgeons should always be aware that instrumentations could create interferences with postoperative radiations. However, although carbon fiber instrumentations have started to be used in thoracolumbar oncology for few years, these options are still not available for cervical spine. In the reported case, the adopted strategy to obtain adequate column reconstruction was based on the idea of reducing the amount of titanium needed for posterior fixation and maximizing the distance between the radiation target and titanium rods.Case report and aimWe present the case of a 53-year-old woman harboring a craniovertebral junction chordoma. A short occipito-C3 construct was selected. Specifically, titanium cervical pedicle screws were placed by using a new technology consisting in patient-tailored and customized 3D-printed guides. The aim of this case report is to determine the feasibility and safety of 3D-printed guides for cervical pedicle screw (CPS) positioning, even in the case of cervical spine tumor.ConclusionCPS could represent a good solution by providing strong biomechanical purchase and tailored 3D-printed guides could increase the safety and the accuracy of this challenging screw placement, even in oncological patients.
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