Background-In the present study, we compared an automatic external defibrillator (AED) that delivers 150-J biphasic shocks with traditional high-energy (200-to 360-J) monophasic AEDs. Methods and Results-AEDs were prospectively randomized according to defibrillation waveform on a daily basis in 4 emergency medical services systems. Defibrillation efficacy, survival to hospital admission and discharge, return of spontaneous circulation, and neurological status at discharge (cerebral performance category) were compared. Of 338 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 115 had a cardiac etiology, presented with ventricular fibrillation, and were shocked with an AED. The time from the emergency call to the first shock was 8.9Ϯ3.0 (meanϮSD) minutes. Conclusions-The 150-J biphasic waveform defibrillated at higher rates, resulting in more patients who achieved a return of spontaneous circulation. Although survival rates to hospital admission and discharge did not differ, discharged patients who had been resuscitated with biphasic shocks were more likely to have good cerebral performance.
Background-Active compression-decompression (ACD) CPR combined with an inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) improves vital organ blood flow during cardiac arrest. This study compared survival rates with ACDϩITD CPR versus standard manual CPR (S-CPR). Methods and Results-A prospective, controlled trial was performed in Mainz, Germany, in which a 2-tiered emergency response included early defibrillation. Patients with out-of-hospital arrest of presumed cardiac pathogenesis were sequentially randomized to ACDϩITD CPR or S-CPR by the advanced life support team after intubation. Rescuers learned which method of CPR to use at the start of each work shift. The primary end point was 1-hour survival after a witnessed arrest. With ACDϩITD CPR (nϭ103), return of spontaneous circulation and 1-and 24-hour survival rates were 55%, 51%, and 37% versus 37%, 32%, and 22% with S-CPR (nϭ107) (Pϭ0.016, 0.006, and 0.033, respectively). One-and 24-hour survival rates in witnessed arrests were 55% and 41% with ACDϩITD CPR versus 33% and 23% in control subjects (Pϭ0.011 and 0.019), respectively. One-and 24-hour survival rates in patients with a witnessed arrest in ventricular fibrillation were 68% and 58% after ACDϩITD CPR versus 27% and 23% after S-CPR (Pϭ0.002 and 0.009), respectively. Patients randomized Ն10 minutes after the call for help to the ACDϩITD CPR had a 3 times higher 1-hour survival rate than control subjects (Pϭ0.002). Hospital discharge rates were 18% after ACDϩITD CPR versus 13% in control subjects (Pϭ0.41). In witnessed arrests, overall neurological function trended higher with ACDϩITD CPR versus control subjects (Pϭ0.07). Conclusions-Compared with S-CPR, ACDϩITD CPR significantly improved short-term survival rates for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Additional studies are needed to evaluate potential long-term benefits of ACDϩITD CPR.
Introduction:Medical care must be well-planned for mass gatherings. Events such as fairs, concerts, parades, and rallies cause many people to gather in one place, increasing the chance of injuries and for the development of a disaster. In this study, the level and quality of medical care were evaluated at a mass gathering of approximately 100,000 children. The event was a television-sponsored fun fair.Methods:Every patient contact was documented on printed forms, including data such as the number of patients treated, gender of the patients, presence or absence of a parental escort, time distribution of patient contacts, the diagnoses for the patient contacts, specific therapies applied, duration of the treatment, and patient discharge information. All data were coded after the event and transferred into a computer database. These data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.Results:Of the 100,000 spectators, 192 patients (81 male [42.2%] and 111 female [57.8%]) were treated during the nine-hour period, from 09:00 hours (h) until 18:00 h. Twenty percent of all the children up to the age of 10 years needing medical assistance were not accompanied by an adult. Seventy-five percent of all patient contacts were made during the afternoon. Of those treated, 164 patients (85.4%) suffered only minor injuries and were seen for <10 minutes. The most common type of complaint was minor trauma (103 patients, 53.6%); followed by minor medical problems such as headaches or light allergic reactions (21 patients, 10.9%); insect bites (20 patients, 10.4%); and serious medical problems or trauma such as severe arterial hypertension or long bone fractures (19 patients, 9.9%). Treatment included, but was not limited to, dressings (100 patients; 52.1%), local therapy (68 patient, 35.4%), and analgesic therapy (10 patients, 5.2%). Four patients (2%) were transferred to local hospitals.Conclusion:Most of the medical needs in the patients attending the children's fun fair were minor. Nevertheless, for similar events in the future, the medical team should be qualified for all serious medical emergencies, as well as major trauma; and should be prepared to meet the requirements of the specific group of spectators.The overall usage rate in the children's fun fair described was 19.2 patient encounters per 10,000 spectators. Half of all of the patients were children below the age of 14 years. Medical services should consider that this study shows that up to 33% of children seeking medical assistance may not be accompanied by adults.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.