The incidence, pathogenesis, consequences and treatment of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor dyslipidemia are not well described. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials reporting cholesterol and triglycerides in mTOR versus non-mTOR inhibitor immunosuppressive treatment regimens in kidney transplant recipients. All but one of 17 trials reported higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, or an increased prevalence of treatment with lipid-lowering agents. Approximately 60% of mTOR inhibitor-treated patients received lipidlowering agents (2-fold higher than controls). There appeared to be little difference between dyslipidemias caused by sirolimus (14 trials) versus everolimus (3 trials). It was difficult to determine the extent to which declines in lipids over time posttransplant were due to lipid-lowering therapy, changes in doses and/or discontinuations of mTOR inhibitors. From the four trials that measured lipoproteins, it appeared that at least some of the increase in total cholesterol with mTOR inhibitors was due to increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. What direct or indirect effects mTOR inhibitors have on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in kidney transplant patients are unknown. However, in the absence of the necessary clinical trials, dyslipidemia should be managed, as it would be in nontransplant patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.
We conclude that the allocation of blood group A2 kidneys for blood group O and B recipients is a practical way to expand the donor pool for these transplant candidates. PP may be important for reducing the levels of anti-A1 and anti-A2 antibodies and for reducing the risk of hyperacute rejection. Splenectomy seems to be unnecessary.
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) selection for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a matter of debate. The Milan criteria (MC) have been largely adopted by the international community. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rates and recurrence probabilities of a new proposal for criteria (up to 3 tumors, each no larger than 5 cm, and a cumulative tumor burden Յ 10 cm). Patients with cirrhosis and HCC included on the waiting list (WL) from 1991 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes in patients who had tumors within and beyond the MC were compared. The survival analysis was done (1) with the intention-to-treat principle and (2) among transplanted patients. A total of 281 patients were included in WL. Twenty-four cases did not undergo OLT (a dropout rate of 8.5%); all but 1 case had tumors within the MC. Of the 257 transplanted patients, 26 had tumors beyond the MC in the pre-OLT evaluation. Based on the intention-to-treat analysis, the 5-year survival was 56% versus 66% in patients who had tumors within and beyond the MC, respectively (P ϭ 0.487). Among transplanted patients, the 5-year survival was 62% versus 69%, respectively (P ϭ 0.734). Through multivariate analysis, microvascular invasion was an independent prognostic factor of poor survival (P ϭ 0.004). The recurrence probabilities at 1 and 5 years were 7% versus 12% and 14% versus 28% in patients with tumors within and beyond the MC, respectively (P ϭ 0.063). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that both poorly differentiated tumors (P Ͻ 0.001) and microvascular invasion (P Ͻ 0.001) increased the risk of recurrence. The expansion to up to 3 nodules, each up to 5 cm, and a cumulative tumor burden Յ 10 cm did not result in a reduction of survival in comparison with patients who had tumors within the MC.
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the predominant cause of sudden cardiac death in the general population, and sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hypothesis: QT-interval prolongation is an independent prognosticator in ESRD. Methods: We reviewed clinical, electrocardiographic, stress test, and coronary angiography data on ESRD patients evaluated for transplantation at our institution between 2000 and 2004 who underwent coronary angiography. The QT interval was corrected for heart rate and QRS duration (QTc). All-cause mortality data were prospectively collected and verified against the Social Security Death Index database. Results: During 40 ± 28 months of follow-up, 132 of the 280 (47%) patients died prior to renal transplantation. Patients with a prolonged QTc (39%) had 1-, 3-, and 5-year death-rates of 12%, 36%, and 47%, respectively, vs 8%, 24%, and 36% for those with normal QTc (log-rank P = 0.03). In a multivariate Cox regression model that adjusted for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, presence and severity of CAD on angiography, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV ejection fraction (EF), and multiple other variables, QTc remained to be an independent predictor of survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.008, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.001-1.014, P = 0.016). Female gender, decreasing LVEF, and decreasing severity of CAD on angiography were independent predictors of prolonged QTc. Conclusions: QTc prolongation is an independent predictor of mortality in ESRD patients being evaluated for renal transplantation. The prognostic information gained from the QTc is additive to that provided by the LVEF and the severity of CAD.
The number of non-responders was higher in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, irrespective of histological status and viral load. It is suggested that such patients should receive a double dose of vaccine, particularly the ones with genotype 1.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.