Alcohol related liver disease, haemat-ological disease, renal failure and neoplasia are much more common causes of marked hyperferritinaemia than haemochromatosis. The role of weight loss in hyperferritinaemia may warrant further investigation.
Pancreatic cancer (PC) evades immune destruction by favoring the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that inhibit effector T cells. The transcription factor Ikaros is critical for lymphocyte development, especially T cells. We have previously shown that downregulation of Ikaros occurs as a result of its protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in our Panc02 tumor-bearing (TB) mouse model. Mechanistically, we observed a deregulation in the balance between Casein Kinase II (CK2) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which suggested that increased CK2 activity is responsible for regulating Ikaros’ stability in our model. We also showed that this loss of Ikaros expression is associated with a significant decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell percentages but increased CD4+CD25+ Tregs in TB mice. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the dietary flavonoid apigenin (API), on Ikaros expression and T cell immune responses. Treatment of splenocytes from naïve mice with (API) stabilized Ikaros expression and prevented Ikaros downregulation in the presence of murine Panc02 cells in vitro, similar to the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In vivo treatment of TB mice with apigenin (TB-API) improved survival, reduced tumor weights and prevented splenomegaly. API treatment also restored protein expression of some Ikaros isoforms, which may be attributed to its moderate inhibition of CK2 activity from splenocytes of TB-API mice. This partial restoration of Ikaros expression was accompanied by a significant increase in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell percentages and a reduction in Treg percentages in TB-API mice. In addition, CD8+ T cells from TB-API mice produced more IFN-γ and their splenocytes were better able to prime allogeneic CD8+ T cell responses compared to TB mice. These results provide further evidence that Ikaros is regulated by CK2 in our pancreatic cancer model. More importantly, our findings suggest that API may be a possible therapeutic agent for stabilizing Ikaros expression and function to maintain T cell homeostasis in murine PC.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that emerged from Wuhan, China in late 2019 causing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infection begins by attaching to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2) via the spike glycoprotein, followed by cleavage by TMPRSS2, revealing the viral fusion domain. Other presumptive receptors for SARS-CoV-2 attachment include CD147, neuropilin-1 (NRP1), and Myeloid C-lectin like receptor (CLR), each of which might play a role in the systemic viral spread. The pathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, often displaying a cytokine storm syndrome, which can be life-threatening. Despite progress made, the detailed mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 interaction with the host immune system remain unclear and are an area of very active research. The process’s key players include viral non-structural proteins and open reading frame products, which have been implicated in immune antagonism. The dysregulation of the innate immune system results in reduced adaptive immune responses characterized by rapidly diminishing antibody titers. Several treatment options for COVID-19 are emerging, with immunotherapies, peptide therapies, and nucleic acid vaccines showing promise. This review discusses the advances in the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2, vaccines and therapies under investigation to counter the effects of this virus, as well as viral variants.
The spike proteins of enveloped viruses are transmembrane glycoproteins that typically undergo post-translational attachment of palmitate on cysteine residues on the cytoplasmic facing tail of the protein. The role of spike protein palmitoylation in virus biogenesis and infectivity is being actively studied as a potential target of novel antivirals. Here, we report that palmitoylation of the first five cysteine residues of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein are indispensable for infection, and palmitoylation-deficient spike mutants are defective in membrane fusion. The DHHC9 palmitoyltransferase interacts with and palmitoylates the spike protein in the ER and Golgi and knockdown of DHHC9 results in reduced fusion and infection of SARS-CoV-2. Two bis-piperazine backbone-based DHHC9 inhibitors inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S protein palmitoylation and the resulting progeny virion particles released are defective in fusion and infection. This establishes these palmitoyltransferase inhibitors as potential new intervention strategies against SARS-CoV-2.
The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), in December 2019 led to a worldwide pandemic with over 170 million confirmed infections and over 3.5 million deaths (as of May 2021). Early studies have shown higher mortality rates from SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients than individuals without cancer. Herein, we review the evidence that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in health and has been linked to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Investigations have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes changes to the gut microbiota, including an overall decline in microbial diversity, enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteremia, and depletion of beneficial commensals, such as the butyrate-producing bacteria. Further, these changes lead to increased colonic inflammation, which leads to gut barrier disruption, expression of genes governing CRC tumorigenesis, and tumor immunosuppression, thus further exacerbating CRC progression. Additionally, a long-lasting impact of SARS-CoV-2 on gut dysbiosis might result in a greater possibility of new CRC diagnosis or aggravating the condition in those already afflicted. Herein, we review the evidence relating to the current understanding of how infection with SARS-CoV-2 impacts the gut microbiota and the effects this will have on CRC carcinogenesis and progression.
Twenty thousand, eight hundred and twenty-nine babies were screened for neuroblastoma at 6 months of age by measuring homovanillic (HVA) and vanillylmandelic (VMA) acid in urine and rationing these to creatinine. Using a "cut off" of the mean + 3 SD, 10 were found to be positive. Two were found on evaluation to have neuroblastoma and in the remaining 8 the raised levels of HVA and/or VMA returned to normal. Only one of the 8 false positive babies was absolutely normal, most having a chronic disorder or illness. Utilising new centiles which relate HVA and VMA to creatinine, only 3 of the 8 would have remained positive, a false positive rate of 0.01%. The false negative rate would have remained unchanged.
Aims The aim of this study was to identify modifiable risk factors associated with mortality in patients requiring revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) for periprosthetic hip fracture. Methods The electronic records of consecutive patients undergoing revision THA for periprosthetic hip fracture between December 2011 and October 2018 were reviewed. The data which were collected included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, the preoperative serum level of haemoglobin, time to surgery, operating time, blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, and postoperative surgical and medical complications. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine independent modifiable factors associated with mortality at 90 days and one year postoperatively. Results A total of 203 patients were identified. Their mean age was 78 years (44 to 100), and 108 (53%) were female. The median time to surgery was three days (interquartile range (IQR) 2 to 5). The mortality rate at one year was 13.8% (n = 28). The commonest surgical complication was dislocation (n = 22, 10.8%) and the commonest medical complication within 90 days of surgery was hospital-acquired pneumonia (n = 25, 12%). Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of mortality one year postoperatively was five-fold higher in patients who sustained a dislocation (odds ratio (OR) 5.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60 to 15.83); p = 0.006). The rate of mortality was also four-fold higher in patients who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia within 90 days postoperatively (OR 4.43 (95% CI 1.55 to 12.67); p = 0.005). There was no evidence that the time to surgery was a risk factor for death at one year. Conclusion Dislocation and hospital-acquired pneumonia following revision THA for a periprosthetic fracture are potentially modifiable risk factors for mortality. This study suggests that surgeons should consider increasing constraint to reduce the risk of dislocation, and the early involvement of a multidisciplinary team to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia. We found no evidence that the time to surgery affected mortality, which may allow time for medical optimization, surgical planning, and resource allocation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(5):580–585.
A study exploring the effects of cognitive complexity and conformity on managers' adaptive performance in a turbulent environment is reported. Traditionally treated separately, complexity and conformity were examined jointly for 8 top managers of 6 different business units in the consumer banking industry. The results support an over-all positive effect of cognitive complexity on performance. Importantly, this effect is directly and also indirectly mediated by a lack of conformity. These results point out the criticality of hiring and promoting business-unit-level managers with high cognitive complexity and low conformity to achieve adaptive performance. They also suggest that business-unit-level managers who lack these characteristics are better suited to more stable environments.
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