This study shows that the daily UF with the P solution may be lower than with the D solution. The mechanism for this short-term and reversible effect that conceivably reflects differences in biocompatibility is not clear although our results implicate that the peritoneal fluid absorption rate may differ between the two solutions.
The significance of the native urine sediment in the differential of glomerular diseases needs no further comment. However, the question arises whether it could be useful to develop a more specific diagnostic approach to identify the origin of renal epithelial cells that can be detected in the urine sediments as well. Especially the detection of podocytes in the urine could be a valuable noninvasive method to get information about the disease activity or disease type and could be used as a follow-up after a biopsy in an outpatient setting. So far, there are only a few studies that analyzed the clinical relevance of renal epithelial cells in the urine systematically or prospectively. The reason for this could be the nature of the material since it will remain unclear whether detachment and changes in the urine milieu have a direct effect on the expression of marker proteins on the detected cells. Dedifferentiation or transdifferentiation of cells that goes along with changed marker expression is certainly also part of the underlying disease process. This review summarizes the available information on marker proteins that have been successfully used in the diagnostic of "podocytes" in the urine. Furthermore, it gives an overview of marker expression on podocytes in situ in development and disease and examines the role of glomerular epithelial shedding in the urine at the interface of basic science and clinical medicine.
The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) was recently discovered as a target autoantigen in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Published evidence suggests that the autoantibodies directed towards a conformation dependent epitope are currently effectively detected by a cell based assay (CBA) utilizing indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on tissue culture cells transfected with the PLA2R cDNA. Limitations of such IIF-CBA assays include observer dependent subjective evaluation of semi-quantitative test results and the protocols are not amenable to high throughput diagnostic testing. We developed a quantitative, observer independent, high throughput capture immunoassay for detecting PLA2R autoantibodies on an addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA) platform. Since reactive domains of PLA2R (i.e. epitopes) could be used to improve diagnostic tests by using small peptides in various high throughput diagnostic platforms, we identified PLA2R epitopes that bound autoantibodies of IMN patients. These studies confirmed that inter-molecular epitope spreading occurs in IMN but use of the cognate synthetic peptides in immunoassays was unable to conclusively distinguish between IMN patients and normal controls. However, combinations of these peptides were able to effectively absorb anti-PLA2R reactivity in IIF-CBA and an immunoassay that employed a lysate derived from HEK cells tranfected with and overexpressing PLA2R. While we provide evidence of intermolecular epitope spreading, our data indicates that in addition to conformational epitopes, human anti-PLA2R reactivity in a commercially available CBA and an addressable laser bead immunoassay is significantly absorbed by peptides representing epitopes of PLA2R.
During conflicts, people with kidney disease, either those remaining in the affected zones or those who are displaced, may be exposed to additional threats because of medical and logistical challenges. Acute kidney injury developing on the battlefield, in field hospitals or in higher-level hospital settings is characterized by poor outcomes. People with chronic kidney disease may experience treatment interruptions, contributing to worsening kidney function. Patients living on dialysis or with a functioning graft may experience limitations of dialysis possibilities or availability of immunosuppressive medications, increasing the risk of severe complications including death. When patients must flee, these threats are compounded by unhealthy and insecure conditions both during displacement and/or at destination. Measures to attenuate these risks may only be partially effective. Local preparedness for overall and medical/kidney-related disaster response is essential. Due to limitations in supply, adjustments in dialysis frequency or dose, switching between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis and changes in immunosuppressive regimens may be required. Telemedicine (if possible) may be useful to support inexperienced local physicians in managing medical and logistical challenges. Limited treatment possibilities during warfare may necessitate referral of patients to distant higher-level hospitals, once urgent care has been initiated. Preparation for disasters should occur ahead of time. Inclusion of disaster nephrology in medical and nursing curricula and training of patients, families and others on self-care and medical practice in austere settings may enhance awareness and preparedness, support best practices adapted to the demanding circumstances, and prepare non-professionals to lend support.
BackgroundWe evaluated accuracy of urinary liver type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) for prediction of early allograft function and compared it to neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), diuresis and urinary creatinine excretion rate (UCr).MethodsUrine samples from 71 consecutive patients were taken 4, 10, 24 and 48 h after transplantation. We classified recipients into two groups: immediate graft function (IGF), with more than 70% reduction of serum Cr at 7th day post-transplant, and delayed graft function (DGF)/slow graft function (SGF) group (DGF - the need for hemodialysis procedure in the first week, SGF - less than 70% reduction of serum Cr in the first week).ResultsThirty-one recipients had IGF and 40 had DGF/SGF. L-FABP was only useful 48 h post-transplant with ROC AUC of 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.74-0.92); NGAL 24 h post-transplant had ROC AUC of 0.82 (0.7-0.91). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for prediction of DGF/SGF with L-FABP > 9.5 mg/mmol Cr and NGAL > 33.1 μg/mmol Cr were: 86, 80, 83 and 83% (L-FABP), and 68, 93, 91, and 73% (NGAL). The difference in urine output between the groups was largest 4 h post-transplant (p = 0.001), later on the difference diminished. There were no significant differences in ROC AUC between L-FABP at 48 h, NGAL at 24 h, urine output at 4 h and UCr excretion rate at 10 h post-transplant. UCr < 0.56 mmol/h 10 h post-transplant predicted DGF/SGF with 94% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 89% PPV and 91% NPV, ROC AUC was 0.9. Classification tree with urine output 4 h and UCr 10 h post-transplant accurately predicted 89% of outcomes. When L-FABP or NGAL were added, the prediction was accurate in 92 or 90%, respectively.ConclusionsL-FABP is comparable to NGAL for prediction of first week allograft function, however UCr and diuresis were non-inferior.
We demonstrated that serum of patients containing autoantibodies directed to PLA2R interferes with the ability of podocytes to attach to collagen type IV in vitro, providing evidence of a serum soluble pathogenic factor interfering with podocyte adhesion in membranous nephropathy.
The remission rate after rituximab treatment in our cohort of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy was lower than in other studies. The reason for this is possibly the application of a single dose of rituximab in the majority of patients, which might have been insufficient in patients with higher proteinuria. .
The beneficial effects of novel peritoneal dialysis solutions low in glucose degradation products regarding peritoneal cell apoptosis and necrosis are well established in vitro, however in vivo data is lacking. Cell-free DNA quantification is a possible method to determine cell damage through apoptosis and necrosis in vivo. We performed a prospective, cross-over study on 26 stable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, treating each patient for 3 months in a randomized order with a conventional, lactate-buffered, acidic solution (solution D) and a novel, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered neutral solution (solution P). The timed overnight peritoneal effluent was sampled for cell-free DNA quantification using a fluorometric assay. The effluent samples of eighteen patients were finally available for DNA quantification. The concentration range of cell-free DNA in the peritoneal effluents was 1.8-9.5 microg/L. The coefficient of intrapatient variation in overnight effluent cell-free DNA appearance was 15.6 +/- 12.4%. Cell-free DNA peritoneal appearance using solutions D and P was 14.9 +/- 6.8 microg and 11.8 +/- 3.4 microg, respectively (P = 0.02), with the average difference of 3.1 microg (95% CI, 0.7-5.6 microg). Our results show that cell-free DNA is present in the overnight peritoneal effluent of stable CAPD patients. A significant decrease in the cell-free DNA appearance with solution P was found; however, before accepting this as an indicator of a more biocompatible profile causing less peritoneal membrane cell necrosis and apoptosis, confirmatory data on larger patient samples are needed. Our results indicate the potential future role of cell-free DNA in the diagnosis and prognosis of therapy-related peritoneal membrane degeneration.
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