The agouti is a species intensively hunted throughout the Amazon and the semi-arid regions of northeastern Brazil. Considering the current trend in conservation management of wild species, the aim of this study was to determine the morphometric reference to the heart of agouti raised in captivity, based on thoracic and cardiac measurements in these animals. Thirty adult agoutis, 1 to 3 years of age, without clinical signs of cardiac disease were selected. The animals were physically restrained and radiographies in laterolateral (LL) and ventrodorsal (VD) recumbence were produced. The following measures were taken: the apicobasilar length of the heart (at the most cranial height of the Carina region to the heart apex) (AB), maximum width of the heart perpendicular to AB (CD), heart inclination angle (AIC), trachea inclination angle (AIT), distance from the right heart wall (DPTd), distance from the left heart wall (DPTe) and vertical depth of the thorax, and the ventral face of the vertebral column to the dorsal border of the sternum at the level of the trachea bifurcation (H). The ratios between AB/CD, AB/H and CD/H were also analyzed. To calculate the vertebral heart scale (VHS), the AB and CD measurements were laid over the thoracic vertebra starting at T4. Radiographic evaluation showed values consistent with those reported in small animals and some wild and exotic species. The main biometric values in the chest cavity and heart of agouti are arranged as follows: (1) The ratios between AB/H ratio and CD/H were not sensitive for identifying heart increases (p>0.05), while the ratio AB/CD was more sensitive in this identification (p<0.05); (2) AIC: 21.2±6.4 o (mean between male and famale); (3) AIT for males and females: 9.93±3.23° and 8.4±3.94°; (4) DPTd and DPTe for males: 0.97±0.40cm and 0.7±0.30cm; (5) DPTd and DPTe for females: 1.12±0.42cm and 01.02±0.43cm; (6) VHS for males and females: 7.75±0.48v e 7.61±0.34v; (7) The caudal vena cava (CVC) was visualized dorsal-cranially and located right of the midline. The data obtained allowed the acquisition of the first reference values for biometry of the heart of agoutis, contributing to better understanding of cardiac morphology and identification of cardiomyopathy in these animals. Os principais valores biométricos mensurados na cavidade torácica e cardíaca da cutia, estão dispostas da seguinte forma: (1) As relações entre AB/H e CD/H não foram sensíveis para identificar aumento do coração (p> 0,05), enquanto a proporção AB/CD foi mais sensível nesta identificação (p <0,05); (2) AIC: 21,2 ± 6.4 o (média entre machos e fêmeas); (3) AIT para machos e fêmeas: 9.93 ± 3.23° and 8.4±3.94°; (4) DPTd e DPTe para os machos: 0,97 ± 0,40 cm e 0,7 ± 0,30, (5) DPTd e DPTe para as fêmeas: 1,12 ± 0,42 e 01,02 ± 0,43; (6) VHS para machos e fêmeas: 7.75±0.48v e 7.61±0.34v; (7) A veia cava caudal (CVC) foi visualizada dorso-cranialmente e localizada à direita da linha média.Os dados obtidos permitiram a obtenção dos primeiros valores de referência para a biometria do coração de ...
Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), guinea pig (Cavia aperea), and black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00±0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11±0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P>0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51±0.03 for males, and 0.52±0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P>0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.77 right decubitus and r=0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72±0.61 and 3.48±0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61±0.51 and 3.5±0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 33(Supl.1):8-14, dezembro 2013 8 RESUMO.-[Avaliação do eletrocardiograma em cutias (Dasyprocta primnolopha, Wagler 1831) não-anestesiadas clinicamente saudáveis.] A cutia é uma das espé-cies mais intensamente caçados em toda a Amazônia e as regiões semi-áridas do nordeste do Brasil. Considerando--se a tendência atual no manejo de animais silvestres em cativeiro, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os valores de referência para o coração cutia criadas em cativeiro, com base em avaliações do eletrocardiograma (ECG). Foram selecionadas cutias adultas e sem sinais clínicos de doença cardíaca (n=30). Os animais foram contidos fisicamente e, em seguida, o ECG foi realizado. Medições padronizadas foram tomadas para estabelecer a análise estatística dos dados. Análise do complexo QRS apresentou valores compatíveis com os relatórios pregressos em animais animais de companhia, assim como para os poucos dados disponí-veis para outras espécies selvagens e exóticas, com exceção da onda T, que mostrou amplitude semelhante à onda R em The agouti is one of the most intensely hunted species throughout the Amazon and the semiarid regions of north-eastern Brazil. Considering the current tendency of wild animal management in captivity, the objective of this study was to determine heart reference values for agouti raised in captivity, based on electrocardiographic assessments (ECG). Adult agouti were selected without clinical signs of heart disease (n=30). The animals were restrained physically and then the ECG was performed. Standardized measurements were taken to establish the statistical analysis of the data. Analysis of the QRS complex showed values compatible with previous reports in peer animals and the limited data available for other wild and exotic species, except for the T wave that showed similar amplitude to the R wave in all the animals studied. The data obtained provided the first reference values for ECG tracings in agouti, contributing to a better understanding of heart electrophysiology in identifying myocardial pathology in these animals. Electrocardiogram assessment in non-anaesthetized clinically healthy agouti (Dasyprocta primnolopha, Wagler 1831) todos os animais estudados. Os dados obtidos permitiram a aquisição dos primeiros valores de referência para os traçados de ECG em cutias, contribuindo para uma melhor compreensão eletrofisiologia cardíaca, na identificação de miocardiopatia nesses animais.
The black-rumped agouti ( Dasyprocta prymnolopha , Wagler 1831) is currently under intense ecologic pressure, which has resulted in its disappearance from some regions of Brazil. Echocardiography is widely used in veterinary medicine but it is not yet part of the clinical routine for wild animals. The objective of the present study was to assess the applicability of the echocardiographic exam in nonanesthetized agouti and to establish normal reference values for echocardiographic measurements in bidimensional mode (2D), M-mode, and Doppler for this species, and a lead II electrocardiogram was simultaneously recorded. Twenty agouti were used in this study. All the echocardiographic measurements were positively correlated with weight (P < 0.05), and there were no significant differences between sexes (P > 0.05). Blood flow velocities in the pulmonary and aortic artery ranged from 67.32-71.28 cm/sec and 79.22-101.84 cm/sec, respectively. The isovolumic relaxation time was assessed in all the animals and ranged from 38.5 to 56.6 ms. The maximum value for the nonfused E and A waves and the Et and At waves was 158 beats/min for both. The results obtained for the morphologic and heart hemodynamic measurements can guide future studies and help in the clinical management of these animals in captivity.
An electrocardiogram is a test that assesses heart electrical activity and is applied more frequently in the veterinary care of wild animals. The present study aimed to define the electrocardiogram pattern of agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831) anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam. Eighteen clinically healthy agoutis (D. prymnolopha) were used from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation (NEPAS) of the Federal University of Piauí, Brazil. The animals were chemically restrained with 5% ketamine hydrochloride at a dose of 15mg/kg and midazolam at a dose of 1mg/kg by intramuscular injection. Electrocardiogram tests were carried out by a computerized method with the veterinary electrocardiogram [Acquisition Model for Computer (ECG - PC version Windows 95) Brazilian Electronic Technology (TEB) consisting of an electronic circuit externally connected to a notebook computer with ECGPC-VET (TEB) software installed on the hard disc. In analysing the EKG results, significant differences were observed for QRS complex duration, PR and QT intervals and for R wave millivoltage between the genders; but we observed a significant influence of weight despite the gender. In the present experiment, the anaesthetic protocol was shown to be well tolerated by the agoutis, and no arrhythmias occurred during the time the animals were monitored. The reference values obtained should be used to better understand the cardiac electrophysiology of the species and for its clinical and surgical management.
The objective of this study was to define the patterns of organogenesis and foetal haemodynamics during the normal gestation of healthy agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) kept in captivity. Thirty pregnant agoutis that ranged in size from small to medium and weighed between 2.5 and 3 kg underwent B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography for the biometric evaluation of the foetal organs. The foetal aortic blood flow proved to be predominantly systolic, and the measured flow velocity was 78.89 ± 2.95 cm/s, with a maximum pressure gradient of 2.12 ± 0.27 mmHg. The liver was characterized by its large volume, occupying the entire cranial aspect of the abdominal cavity, and it was associated cranially with the diaphragm and caudally with the stomach. The flow velocity in the portal vein was estimated to equal 12.17 ± 2.37 cm/s, with a resistivity index of 0.82 ± 0.05. The gallbladder was centrally located and protruded cranially towards the diaphragm. The spleen was visualized as an elongated structure with tapered cranial and caudal extremities, and the foetal kidneys were visualized bilaterally in the retroperitoneal region, with the right kidney positioned slightly more cranially than the left. The morphological characterization and hemodynamic analysis of the foetal organs of black-rumped agoutis via B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography allow determination of the vascular network and of reference values for the blood flow required for perfusing the anatomical elements essential for maintaining the viability of foetuses at different gestational ages.
Peccaries are wild mammals belonging to the Tayassu genus that are found almost everywhere in the Americas and have demonstrated great potential as an experimental model for scientific investigations. Twelve healthy adult animals were sedated to perform echocardiographic examinations in B, M and Doppler mode. The variables that exhibited statistically significant correlation coefficients with weight were LVFWd, LVIDd, LVIDs, E wave, A’RV, MAM, and TAPSE. The HR exhibited a negative relationship with the IVRT. The LA variable showed a positive correlation with the AO. The MAM exhibited correlations with the LVIDd and LVIDs. The TAPSE showed positive correlations with the E’RV and A’RV. The present study provides the first reference values for echocardiographic measurements in B, M and Doppler modes from peccaries anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam. Echocardiography was easy to perform in collared peccaries, and the collected data revealed values that can aid in their clinical management and conservation.
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