a b s t r a c tDiabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a chronic, non-healing complication of diabetes that lead to high hospital costs and, in extreme cases, to amputation. Diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, abnormal cellular and cytokine/chemokine activity are among the main factors that hinder diabetic wound repair. DFUs represent a current and important challenge in the development of novel and efficient wound dressings. In general, an ideal wound dressing should provide a moist wound environment, offer protection from secondary infections, remove wound exudate and promote tissue regeneration. However, no existing dressing fulfills all the requirements associated with DFU treatment and the choice of the correct dressing depends on the wound type and stage, injury extension, patient condition and the tissues involved. Currently, there are different types of commercially available wound dressings that can be used for DFU treatment which differ on their application modes, materials, shape and on the methods employed for production. Dressing materials can include natural, modified and synthetic polymers, as well as their mixtures or combinations, processed in the form of films, foams, hydrocolloids and hydrogels. Moreover, wound dressings may be employed as medicated systems, through the delivery of healing enhancers and therapeutic substances (drugs, growth factors, peptides, stem cells and/or other bioactive substances). This work reviews the state of the art and the most recent advances in the development of wound dressings for DFU treatment. Special emphasis is given to systems employing new polymeric biomaterials, and to the latest and innovative therapeutic strategies and delivery approaches.
O primeiro ano é um período crítico para a adaptação do estudante à universidade. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar, qualitativamente, a experiência de adaptação à universidade em jovens calouros em uma universidade. Participaram do estudo 14 estudantes de diferentes cursos, com idades entre 18 e 22 anos. Os sujeitos foram entrevistados individualmente e as entrevistas submetidas a uma análise fenomenológica. Quatro grandes temas emergiram da análise: Saindo de casa, Ingressando na vida acadêmica, Percebendo mudanças em si mesmo e Adaptando-se ao curso. Os resultados indicam que a adaptação à universidade entre calouros é uma experiência que traz mudanças importantes para os estudantes, e que o sucesso na adaptação depende de muitos fatores, alguns deles não ligados diretamente ao contexto acadêmico. Apesar disso, o contexto universitário tem um papel importante a desempenhar no processo de adaptação à universidade.
Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.
The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for survival. The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Thirty-eight patients (22%) were diagnosed with CNS involvement at the time of initial MM diagnosis and 134 (78%) at relapse/progression. Upon diagnosis of CNS MM, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated and treated patients had median OS of 2 and 8 months, respectively (p<0.001). At least one previous line of therapy for MM before the diagnosis of CNS disease and >1 cytogenetic abnormality detected by FISH were independently associated with worse OS. The median OS for patients with 0, 1 and 2 of these risk factors were 25 months, 5.5 months and 2 months, respectively (p<0.001). Neurological manifestations, not considered chemotherapy-related, observed at any time after initial diagnosis of MM should raise a suspicion of CNS involvement. Although prognosis is generally poor, the survival of previously untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy.
Summary:Purpose: SCN1A is the most clinically relevant epilepsy gene, most mutations lead to severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). We studied 132 patients with epilepsy syndromes with seizures precipitated by fever, and performed phenotypegenotype correlations with SCN1A alterations.Methods: We included patients with SMEI including borderline SMEI (SMEB), GEFS+, febrile seizures (FS), or other seizure types precipitated by fever. We performed a clinical and genetic study focusing on SCN1A, using dHPLC, gene sequencing, and MLPA to detect genomic deletions/duplications on SMEI/SMEB patients.Results: We classified patients as: SMEI/SMEB = 55; GEFS+ = 26; and other phenotypes = 51. SCN1A analysis by dHPLC/sequencing revealed 40 mutations in 37 SMEI/SMEB (67%) and 3 GEFS+ (11.5%) probands. MLPA showed genomic deletions in 2 of 18 SMEI/SMEB. Most mutations were de novo (82%). SMEB patients carrying mutations (8) were more likely to have missense mutations (62.5%), conversely SMEI patients (31) had more truncating, splice site or genomic alterations (64.5%). SMEI/SMEB with truncating, splice site or genomic alterations had a significantly earlier age of onset of FS compared to those with missense mutations and without mutations (p = 0.00007, ANOVA test). None of the remaining patients with seizures precipitated by fever carried SCN1A mutations.Conclusion: We obtained a frequency of 71% SCN1A abnormalities in SMEI/SMEB and of 11.5% in GEFS+ probands. MLPA complements DNA sequencing of SCN1A increasing the mutation detection rate. SMEI/SMEB with truncating, splice site or genomic alterations had a significantly earlier age of onset of FS. This study confirms the high sensitivity of SCN1A for SMEI/SMEB phenotypes. Key Words: SMEI-GEFS+-SCN1A-Fever-provoked seizures-MLPA.Mutations in the gene coding for the α1 subunit of the neuronal sodium channel (SCN1A) have been associated with various types of epilepsy. SCN1A abnormalities have been found in about 5-10 % of generalized
Dok ('downstream-of-kinase') family of cytoplasmic proteins play a role in signalling downstream of receptor and non-receptor phosphotyrosine kinases. Recently, a skeletal muscle receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK)-interacting cytoplasmic protein termed Dok-7 has been identified. Subsequently, we and others identified mutations in DOK7 as a cause of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS), providing evidence for a crucial role of Dok-7 in maintaining synaptic structure. Here we present clinical and molecular genetic data of 14 patients from 12 independent kinships with 13 different mutations in the DOK7 gene. The clinical picture of CMS with DOK7 mutations is highly variable. The age of onset may vary between birth and the third decade. However, most of the patients display a characteristic 'limb-girdle' pattern of weakness with a waddling gait and ptosis, but without ophthalmoparesis. Respiratory problems were frequent. Patients did not benefit from long-term therapy with esterase inhibitors; some of the patients even worsened. DOK7 mutations have emerged as one of the major genetic defects in CMS. The clinical picture differs significantly from CMS caused by mutations in other genes, such as the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit genes. None of the patients with DOK7 mutations had tubular aggregates in the muscle biopsy, implying that 'limb-girdle myasthenia (LGM) with tubular aggregates' previously described in literature may be a pathogenic entity distinct from CMS caused by DOK7 mutations.
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