Plutella xylostella (L.) is the most important pest of Brassicaceae worldwide, with a recent estimate of US$ 4-5 billion expenditure for the control of this insect. A case of very high resistance of this pest to chlorantraniliprole was recently associated with reduced efficacy in a Brazilian field of Brassica spp. Although diamide resistance has been characterized, the fitness of insects due to such resistance has yet to be examined. Therefore, in this study, biological parameters were assessed in both susceptible and resistant strains of P. xylostella subjected to sublethal chlorantraniliprole concentrations. The field strain showed high resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR50=27,793-fold), although resistance rapidly decreased in the first generations, showing instability. The exposure of susceptible and resistant larvae to their respective LC1, LC10, and LC25 values led to an increased duration of the larval and pupae phases and reduced weight in both strains; however, no significant differences in pupal viability across the treatments were observed. The resistant insects presented significantly lower larval weight and fecundity and higher larval and pupal periods, hatchability, and male longevity when not exposed to chlorantraniliprole, suggesting a fitness cost associated with resistance. In addition, resistant females showed a significantly higher egg-laying period and longevity at LC25, whereas the males lived longer at LC1. Chlorantraniliprole negatively impacted the biological parameters of both strains tested, although these effects were more relevant to the resistant insects. Resistant P. xylostella showed negative and positive biological trade-offs when compared with the susceptible individuals in both the absence and presence of chlorantraniliprole. Despite the important role that these trade-offs may play in the evolution of resistance to chlorantraniliprole, practical applications still depend on such information as the dominance of fitness costs and resistance.
A new analytical expression for the size-dependent bandgap of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals is proposed within the framework of the finite-depth square-well effective mass approximation in order to provide a quantitative description of the quantum confinement effect. This allows one to convert optical spectroscopic data (photoluminescence spectrum and absorbance edge) into accurate estimates for the particle size distributions of colloidal systems even if the traditional effective mass model is expected to fail, which occurs typically for very small particles belonging to the so-called strong confinement limit. By applying the reported theoretical methodologies to CdTe nanocrystals synthesized through wet chemical routes, size distributions are inferred and compared directly to those obtained from atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This analysis can be used as a complementary tool for the characterization of nanocrystal samples of many other systems such as the II-VI and III-V semiconductor materials.
We report the synthesis of 10,12-pentacosadyinoic acid (PCDA) and PCDA + cholesterol (CHO) + sphingomyelin (SPH) vesicles dispersed in water and the determination of their colorimetric response induced by small amount of organic solvents. In the absence of solvent, PCDA and PCDA/CHO/SPH vesicles showed an intense blue color. The addition of CHCl(3), CH(2)Cl(2), and CCl(4) caused a colorimetric transition (CT) in both structures with the following efficiency: CHCl(3) > CH(2)Cl(2) ≅ CCl(4). However, CH(3)OH did not cause a blue-to-red transition. By microcalorimetric technique we also determined, for the first time, the enthalpy change associated with the CT process and the energy of interaction between solvent molecules and vesicle self-assembly. We observed that the chloride solvents induced a colorimetric transition, but the thermodynamic mechanism was different for each of them. CT induced by CHCl(3) was enthalpically driven, while that caused by CH(2)Cl(2) or CCl(4) was entropically driven.
The interaction of Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis in the midgut of some insect larvae determines their efficacies as insecticides, due to the expression and availability of sites of action of the toxin in the midgut. Researches point out cases of resistance to Cry toxin due to alterations in the binding sites in columnar cell membrane. We analyzed the effects of Cry1Ac toxin expressed by Bt-cotton plants on Alabama argillacea midgut morphophysiology clarifying in levels of morphological and ultrastructural. Larvae in the 4th instar of A. argillacea after 20 min from ingesting Bt-cotton leaves expressing 0.183 ng of Cry1Ac exhibited ultrastructural and morphological modifications in the columnar cells with significant changes in the mitochondrial polymorphism, cytoplasmic vacuolization, microvillus and basal labyrinth. Expressive morphological alterations were also observed in the goblet cells indicating that the columnar cells are not the only target of the Cry1Ac toxin. The regenerative cells did not modify their structures and exhibited decrease in regeneration capacity. In conclusion, the ingestion of 0.183 ± 0.077 ng of Cry1Ac was enough to promote alterations in the columnar and goblet cells, besides reducing significantly the number of regenerative cells, which may have contributed to larval death. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to determine the true cause of death.
Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering methods are used to investigate the structure of dilute suspensions of two different ferrofluid systems dispersed in soft polyacrylamide hydrogels. It is found that the particles in the fluid are fractal aggregates composed of smaller particles of radius ca. 5 nm. The fractal dimension is strongly dependent on sample, taking the value 1.7 in the first sample and 2.9 in the second sample. In the presence of a magnetic field the aggregates orient, but are restricted in both their translational and rotational freedom. The effect of the gel elasticity is treated as a hindrance to the orientation process.
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