The WORMS method described in this report provides multi-feature, whole-organ assessment of the knee in OA using conventional MR images, and shows high inter-observer agreement among trained readers. This method may be useful in epidemiological studies and clinical trials of OA.
PET after completion of therapy should be performed at least 3 weeks, and preferably at 6 to 8 weeks, after chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy, and 8 to 12 weeks after radiation or chemoradiotherapy. Visual assessment alone is adequate for interpreting PET findings as positive or negative when assessing response after completion of therapy. Mediastinal blood pool activity is recommended as the reference background activity to define PET positivity for a residual mass > or = 2 cm in greatest transverse diameter, regardless of its location. A smaller residual mass or a normal sized lymph node (ie, < or = 1 x 1 cm in diameter) should be considered positive if its activity is above that of the surrounding background. Specific criteria for defining PET positivity in the liver, spleen, lung, and bone marrow are also proposed. Use of attenuation-corrected PET is strongly encouraged. Use of PET for treatment monitoring during a course of therapy should only be done in a clinical trial or as part of a prospective registry.
Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent and debilitating joint disorder. There is no effective medical therapy for osteoarthritis due to limited understanding of osteoarthritis pathogenesis. We show that TGF–β1 is activated in the subchondral bone in response to altered mechanical loading in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) osteoarthritis mouse model. TGF–β1 concentrations also increased in human osteoarthritis subchondral bone. High concentrations of TGF–β1 induced formation of nestin+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clusters leading to aberrant bone formation accompanied by increased angiogenesis. Transgenic expression of active TGF–β1 in osteoblastic cells induced osteoarthritis. Inhibition of TGF–β activity in subchondral bone attenuated degeneration of osteoarthritis articular cartilage. Notably, knockout of the TGF–β type II receptor (TβRII) in nestin+ MSCs reduced development of osteoarthritis in ACLT mice. Thus, high concentrations of active TGF–β1 in the subchondral bone initiated the pathological changes of osteoarthritis, inhibition of which could be a potential therapeutic approach.
BACKGROUND-Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee is often performed in patients who have knee symptoms of unclear cause. When meniscal tears are found, it is commonly assumed that the symptoms are attributable to them. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of meniscal damage in the general population and the association of meniscal tears with knee symptoms and with radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis.
In an effort to evolve semi-quantitative scoring methods based upon limitations identified in existing tools, integrating expert readers’ experience with all available scoring tools and the published data comparing the different scoring systems, we iteratively developed the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS). The purpose of this report is to describe the instrument and its reliability.
The MOAKS instrument refines the scoring of BMLs (providing regional delineation and scoring across regions), cartilage (sub-regional assessment), and refines the elements of meniscal morphology (adding meniscal hypertrophy, partial maceration and progressive partial maceration) scoring. After a training and calibration session two expert readers read MRIs of 20 knees separately. In addition, one reader re-read the same 20 MRIs 4 weeks later presented in random order to assess intra-rater reliability. The analyses presented here are for both intra- and inter-rater reliability (calculated using the linear weighted kappa and overall percent agreement).
With the exception of inter-rater reliability for tibial cartilage area (kappa=0.36) and tibial osteophytes (kappa=0.49); and intra-rater reliability for tibial BML number of lesions (kappa=0.54), Hoffa-synovitis (kappa=0.42) all measures of reliability using kappa statistics were very good (0.61-0.8) or reached near perfect agreement (0.81-1.0). Only intra-rater reliability for Hoffa-synovitis, and inter-rater reliability for tibial and patellar osteophytes showed overall percent agreement < 75%.
MOAKS scoring shows very good to excellent reliability for the large majority of features assessed. Further iterative development and research will include assessment of its validation and responsiveness.
Whether arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for symptomatic patients with a meniscal tear and knee osteoarthritis results in better functional outcomes than nonoperative therapy is uncertain.
We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving symptomatic patients 45 years of age or older with a meniscal tear and evidence of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis on imaging. We randomly assigned 351 patients to surgery and postoperative physical therapy or to a standardized physical-therapy regimen (with the option to cross over to surgery at the discretion of the patient and surgeon). The patients were evaluated at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was the difference between the groups with respect to the change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical-function score (ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms) 6 months after randomization.
In the intention-to-treat analysis, the mean improvement in the WOMAC score after 6 months was 20.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 23.9) in the surgical group and 18.5 (95% CI, 15.6 to 21.5) in the physical-therapy group (mean difference, 2.4 points; 95% CI, −1.8 to 6.5). At 6 months, 51 active participants in the study who were assigned to physical therapy alone (30%) had undergone surgery, and 9 patients assigned to surgery (6%) had not undergone surgery. The results at 12 months were similar to those at 6 months. The frequency of adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups.
In the intention-to-treat analysis, we did not find significant differences between the study groups in functional improvement 6 months after randomization; however, 30% of the patients who were assigned to physical therapy alone underwent surgery within 6 months. (Funded by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; METEOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00597012.)
Objective. To explore the role of meniscal tears and meniscal malposition as risk factors for subsequent cartilage loss in subjects with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA).Methods. Study subjects were patients with symptomatic knee OA from the Boston Osteoarthritis of the Knee Study. Baseline assessments included knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with followup MRI at 15 and 30 months. Cartilage and meniscal damage were scored on MRI in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral joints using the semiquantitative whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score. Tibiofemoral cartilage was scored on MR images of all 5 plates of each tibiofemoral joint, and the meniscal position was measured using eFilm Workstation software. A proportional odds logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations was used to assess the effect of each predictor (meniscal position factor and meniscal damage as dichotomous predictors in each model) on cartilage loss in each of the 5 plates within a compartment. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), tibial width, and sex.Results. We assessed 257 subjects whose mean ؎ SD age was 66.6 ؎ 9.2 years and BMI was 31.5 ؎ 5.7 kg/m 2 ; 42% of subjects were female, and 77% of knees had a Kellgren/Lawrence radiographic severity grade >2. In the medial tibiofemoral joint, each measure of meniscal malposition was associated with an increased risk of cartilage loss. There was also a strong association between meniscal damage and cartilage loss. Since meniscal coverage and meniscal height diminished with subluxation, less coverage and reduced height also increased the risk of cartilage loss.Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of an intact and functioning meniscus in patients with symptomatic knee OA, since the findings demonstrate that loss of this function has important consequences for cartilage loss.Cartilage loss in knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial process that is influenced by systemic risk factors such as age, sex, and obesity and by local mechanical factors such as alignment and injury. One of the important local mechanical factors is the integrity and function of the meniscus. The meniscus has many functions in the knee, including load bearing, shock absorption, stability enhancement, and lubrication (1,2). Knee OA after meniscectomy is traditionally considered a result of the joint injury that leads to the meniscectomy in the first instance, and the increased contact stress in the cartilage due to the loss of meniscal tissue (3-8). Meniscectomy is often accompanied by the onset of OA because of the high focal stresses imposed on articular cartilage and subchondral bone subsequent to excision of the meniscus. Studies of meniscectomy affirm the importance of loss of meniscal function as a risk factor for subsequent knee OA (9).Although meniscectomy appears to be an important risk factor for OA, we know little about the effect of meniscal tears and meniscal extrusion or subluxation on cartilage loss in knees with preexisting OA. Results from a cross-sectio...
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