The present study was conducted to determine the level of technical efficiency of dairy producing farms in Jordan by applying the stochastic production frontier (SPF) methodology. Technical efficiency estimates were generated for 100 dairy farms in Jordan. The results of the study indicated that technical efficiency of milk production by most of dairy farms in Jordan is low. The mean technical efficiency was estimated to be only 39.5% for the sampled dairy farms. This means that an average farm in the sample could in principle increase its level of milk production by 60.5% using the current input quantities. The results also implies that the dairy farms in Jordan are producing milk to only about 40% of the potential frontier production levels of this industry, implying that the production is about 60% below the frontier due to technical inefficiency. To enhance farm efficiency there is a need to improve farmers' access to extension services. The need to involve farmers more in the extension process itself should be encouraged.
Among vegetable farmers in Jordan, there are conflicting attitudes towards the extension activities provided by the public sector. Some farmers accept and adopt the recommendations of these activities; on the other hand, some people are not satisfied and consider these activities a waste of time for both the farmers and the government. This situation has serious impacts on the quality, duration and efficiency of the extension activities provided by government related agencies. Also, the situation will end in providing low-quality agricultural extension services to the farmers or providing these services in a non-productive manner. The actual attitudes of vegetable farmers towards Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES) in the Dear Alla Area of Jordan were investigated in this study. A total of 80 vegetable farmers were selected for the study. A questionnaire consisting of two main parts was used for data collection; the first part was related to personal and socio-economic characteristics of the sample individuals. The second part was related to extension activities. A five-point Likerttype scale was used as an instrument to gather primary data. The farmers rated their attitudes toward Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES) through 10 statements related carefully to the Public Agricultural Extension Services. Data analysis was done in two sections, consisting of data description and data inferential analysis. The results of the study revealed that the farmers' overall attitude towards the public agricultural extension activities was negative. The farmers' attitudes according to age, experience, educational level and frequency and type of contact with public extension services were also negative. The negative attitude of the participant farmers towards the Public Agricultural Extension Services means that the farmers were not satisfied with these services. Identifying the sources and types of public extension programs, the provision of legal and policy framework, farmer' participation, the determination of public extension functions, providing skilled manpower and networking and enhancing the capabilities of public extension service providers may aid in changing the farmers' attitudes towards the Public agricultural extension services to be positive.
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the beneficial effects of garlic powder as a phytogenic supplement on broilers chickens' performance. The assumption that garlic could improve some economic and performance characteristics of broiler chickens (i.e. body weight, feed intake, water intake, feed conversion ratio, feeding cost, carcass yield and mortality rate) was tested. A total of 400 one-day-old chicks of mixed sex (Hybrid) were weighed and randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 25 chicks. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (control), control + 2.5 kg /ton Garlic, or control + 5 kg /ton Garlic or 7.5 kg /ton Garlic as powder. The results of the study revealed that incorporation of garlic powder in broiler diets as feed additive significantly enhanced growth, economic and productive performance of these chickens. Physiological measurements (body weight, weight gains, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight and internal organs) showed better performance of garlic treated chickens compared with control group under same rearing system. The results similarly showed lower susceptibility to diseases and medicament treatment consequently; lower mortality rate compared to control groups. Furthermore, blood and meat analysis showed lower cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, and, HDL levels compared with control group. The study concluded that Garlic can be effectively used in broilers feeding to replace antibiotic as growth promoter.
In agribusiness, broiler farms capacity is considered to be a very important factor in determining the profitability of these farms in developing countries. The main objective of this study was to introduce a comparative analysis of different broiler farm capacities in Jordan to determine the best viable capacity to be adopted. A total of 21, 72, and 7 producers were interviewed representing small, medium, and large farms respectively. A structured questionnaire was designed to obtain information from respondents. The Net Present Value (NPV), the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and the Benefits-Costs ratio (B/C) were the discounted financial indicators used to achieve the goals of the study. The results of the study revealed that all the financial indicators used were economically acceptable in the medium and large size broiler production capacities. The NPV for these two capacities was positive and acceptable (23437 and 55880 JDs respectively). The benefits of these two capacities outweighed the actual costs that went in the project. For small farms, the NPV value was negative indicating non viable type of business compared to the other two capacities. Each money unit invested in small farms will cause a loss of 12.8 units (IRR = -12.8%). On the other hand, each money unit invested in medium and large farms will provide returns higher of about 22% than the costs paid (IRR = almost 22% for both). The payback for these two capacities was 1.06 times the costs meaning that for every unit of cost the project will get 1.06 units of gain. Adoption of medium to large broiler farm capacities in Jordan is recommended by this study.
Problem statement: Jordan's agricultural extension service is seriously under-staffed and its effectiveness is consequently compromised. Reservations are being expressed about the performance and capability of the agricultural extension system in Jordan. The performance of this sector has been disappointing and has failed to transfer agricultural technology to the farmers. The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Jordan's agricultural extension services. Approach: The effect of extension services on olive productivity in the study area was investigated. A total number of 60 olive producers were selected to be interviewed for this study. This number was enough to achieve the study objectives. The interviewed producers were distributed almost equally within olive production locations in the study area. The sample obtained through the simple random sampling technique. The two groups had been chosen and distributed randomly into an experimental group (30 farmers; 10 for each source of extension service) and control group (30 farmers). The experimental group received extension services and the control group received no extension services. Two interview-cum-structured questionnaires were designed and used to collect information and data for this study. The first instrument was designed for farmers who received extension services and the second from farmers who received no extension services. Another questionnaire was designed for administrators of extension organizations concerned with providing extension services to farmers. To find the differences that may exist between two studied groups, One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), t-test and LSD test via Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS) were used. The average net profit obtained from an area of one dynamo of olive farm was the main item to be considered in determining the effectiveness of agricultural extension activities. Results and Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that the net profit of farmers who received extension services is almost the same as those who do not receive any extension services. The provided extension services made no difference in the achievement of farmers regarding their production and consequently their net profits. The three main investigated sources of extension services provide inadequate and less effective extension services. To overcome most of the obstacles facing extension programs in Jordan the government should impart extensive in-service agricultural trainings to train the extension personnel to cope with the growing needs of farmers. The establishment of field demonstration sites, pilot sites on farmers' fields around the demonstrations is another important issues to be covered.
This study aimed at analyzing farm accounting skills related to the financial performance of dairy industry in Jordan. A survey procedure was adopted to measure the perspective of dairy producers about their skills in farm accounting. 13 statements related to farm accounting skills were used. The farmers skills in farm accounting were measured using mean score derived from 5 point likert-scale. The statistical population of this study consisted of all dairy producers in the country and out of them 237 dairy producers selected as statistical sample. The data were collected between March 1 st and June 30 th 2014. The results of the study concluded that dairy farmers do not possess the necessary accounting skills related to the financial performance of their activity and needed to run their enterprise in a productive way. An empirical evidence was provided about lack of accounting skills by Jordanian dairy farmers. Paying attention to farm accounting and recognition of its importance and providing suitable executive ways to its related problems will be a vital component in developing dairy industry as well as other farming activities.
Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, higher feed quantity to be converted to eggs and higher mortality rate are associated with lower profitability of laying hen enterprises, while higher length of production cycle, higher egg sale price and higher laying percentage are associated with higher profitability. Critical limits indicated for various cost components should be used as a guideline to adjust budget in commercial egg operation thereby, ensuring higher net profit per bird.
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