Vagus nerve stimulation is an adjunctive therapy used to treat patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or had poor results after surgical procedures. Its mechanism of action is not yet fully comprehended but it possibly involves modulation of the locus coeruleus, thalamus and limbic circuit through noradrenergic and serotonergic projections. There is sufficient evidence to support its use in patients with focal epilepsy and other seizure types. However, it should be recognized that improvement is not immediate and increases over time. The majority of adverse events is stimulation-related, temporary and decreases after adjustment of settings. Future perspectives to improve efficacy and reduce side effects, such as different approaches to increase battery life, transcutaneous stimulation and identification of prognostic factors, should be further investigated.Keywords: vagus nerve stimulation; epilepsy. RESUMOA estimulação vagal é uma terapia paliativa utilizada no tratamento de pacientes com epilepsia refratária que não são candidatos à cirurgia ressectiva ou naqueles com evolução insatisfatória após o procedimento cirúrgico. Seu mecanismo de ação ainda não foi completamente elucidado mas possivelmente envolve a modulação do locus coeruleus, tálamo e circuito límbico através de projeções noradrenérgicas e serotoninérgicas. Atualmente há evidência suficiente para corroborar o uso desta terapia em pacientes com epilepsia focal e outros tipos de crise, com resultados que, apesar de não imediatos, melhoram progressivamente no longo prazo. Os eventos adversos são, em sua maioria, relacionados à estimulação e auto-limitados. Perspectivas futuras para aumentar a eficácia e reduzir os efeitos colaterais como a utilização de baterias com maior durabilidade, estimulação transcutânea e identificação de fatores prognósticos devem ser investigadas. Palavras-chave: estimulação do nervo vago; epilepsia.Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurologic diseases and affects at least 50 million people worldwide 1 . Although much has been understood about its causes, epilepsy is still extremely stigmatizing and many patients are victims of prejudice and social exclusion. The quality of life of those affected by the disease is remarkably compromised due to seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AED), cognitive impairment and physical limitations.Those who do not achieve adequate seizure control, even with multiple AED trials, are considered refractory. Currently, medically resistant epilepsy is regarded as a worldwide health issue as it is endured by approximately one third of epileptic patients. The financial burden is substantial and, among all health costs of uncontrolled patients, nearly 50% are related to epilepsy care costs 2 . For these individuals, whose treatment is generally complex, epilepsy surgery may be indicated and can provide up to 80% seizure control, depending on distinct aspects such as time of follow-up and epileptic focus localization. Figure 1 illustrates the therapy ...
Background: About 50% of patients that suffer from trigeminal neuralgia do not experience sustained benefit from the use of oral medication. For their adequate management, a few surgical procedures are available. Of these, percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) and microvascular decompression (MD) are two of the most performed worldwide. In this retrospective study, we present the outcomes of these techniques through estimation of initial pain relief and subsequent recurrence rate. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with medically refractory trigeminal pain surgically treated at Hospital Cajuru, Curitiba, Brazil, with PBC, MD or both between 2013 and 2018 were enrolled into this retrospective study. The post-procedural rate for pain relief and recurrence and associations between patient demographics and outcomes were analyzed. Results: MD had an earlier recurrence time than balloon compression. Of the 37 patients, the mean age was 61.6 years, approximately one third were male and most had type I neuralgia. The most affected branch was the maxillary (V2). The time for recurrence after surgery was on average 11.8 months for PBC and 9.0 months for MD. Complications were seen only with microsurgery. Conclusions: MD presented with a more precocious recurrence of pain than PBC in this article. Moreover, it had a higher recurrence rate than described in the literature as well, which is possibly explained by the type of graft (muscle) that was used to separate the neurovascular structures.
Carotid artery dissection is a significant cause of stroke in young patients. It may be asymptomatic and go undiagnosed, or minimal transient manifestations may follow, commanding a higher index of suspicion than ordinarily exists to avoid misdiagnosis. Reported herein is a 27-year-old man who suffered extracranial internal carotid artery dissection while practicing a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu submission maneuver. The patient's condition suddenly deteriorated one week later due to distal embolization and stroke. Despite endovascular treatment, with stenting of the cervical carotid artery, neurologic deficits remained. Of note, the objective in martial arts, which is to kill or incapacitate, has yet to be fully tempered in transitioning to sport. Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, a relatively new and fast-growing form of martial art, places emphasis on submission maneuvers. Related injuries are not common knowledge and are poorly described in the literature. This account is intended to shed light on the risk of this discipline. Through education and improved supervision, vascular injuries of this nature and the potentially lethal or disabling consequences may thus be prevented in young athletes.
PHACE(S) syndrome is a neurocutaneous syndrome with a wide array of presentations. The most known and present trait is facial hemangioma > 5 cm. The name is an acronym for Posterior fossa malformations, infantile Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, aortic Coarctation, Eye abnormalities, and middle-line malformations of the Sternum. The exact etiopathogenic mechanism of this syndrome is not fully understood, and its treatment depends on detailed and individualized assessment. The aim of this paper is to describe a child with a throat hemangioma, vascular malformations, cognitive delay, and other anomalies to illustrate the neuroimaging found in this syndrome.
Ondine's curse is one of the most enchanting mythical tales in the field of Medicine. The nymph Ondine was an immortal water spirit who became human after falling in love for a man, marrying him, and having a baby. In one of the versions of the tale, when she caught her husband sleeping with another woman, she cursed him to remain awake in order to control his own breathing. During the 19th century, the rare syndrome characterized by loss of autonomic breath control, while voluntary respiration remains intact, was cleverly named “Ondine's curse”. Nowadays, the term Ondine's curse is usually associated with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome; however, in medical literature, it also designates several respiratory disorders. Here, we present a review of the myth focused on history, arts and medicine.
Patients with polycystic kidney disease have a higher prevalence of intracranial aneurysms and may progress to renal failure requiring transplantation. The endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms may improve prognosis, since rupture often causes premature death or disability, but the nephrotoxicity risk associated with contrast medium must be always considered in cases of renal impairment. A 55-year-old female patient with polycystic kidney disease and grafted kidney associated with anterior communicant artery aneurysm was successfully treated by embolization. The renal function remained normal after the procedure. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of endovascular treatment of brain aneurysm in a transplanted patient reported in the medical literature. The endovascular procedure in renal transplant patients is feasible and can be considered to treat this population. Further studies and cases are needed to confirm its safety.
Patients with polycystic kidney disease have a higher prevalence of intracranial aneurysms and may progress to renal failure requiring transplantation. The endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms may improve prognosis, since rupture often causes premature death or disability, but the nephrotoxicity risk associated with contrast medium must be always considered in cases of renal impairment.
A 55-year-old female patient with polycystic kidney disease and grafted kidney associated with anterior communicant artery aneurysm was successfully treated by embolization.
The renal function remained normal after the procedure. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of endovascular treatment of brain aneurysm in a transplanted patient reported in the medical literature.
The endovascular procedure in renal transplant patients is feasible and can be considered to treat this population. Further studies and cases are needed to confirm its safety.
OBJECTIVECerebral pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare vascular malformation and may cause hemorrhage and neurological deficit. The presence of high-flow shunts constitutes a challenge when performing the endovascular technique, due to risk of distal embolization. The authors report a simple maneuver, adapted from the Matas test, that was successfully applied to treat a child with two pial AVFs.METHODSAn 8-year-old boy presented with headache and vomiting due to two single-channel high-flow intracerebral pial AVFs. He was treated with an endovascular approach using brief, gentle compression of the ipsilateral cervical carotid artery. The temporary flow arrest ensured proper placement of the first coil, allowing definitive obliteration of the shunt.RESULTSThere were no complications with the procedure, and the patient recovered uneventfully. Throughout the 9-month follow-up, the patient experienced a stable neurological condition, with both fistulas occluded and improvement of local circulation.CONCLUSIONSThis easy-to-perform maneuver allows precise positioning of embolic material into high-flow shunts to facilitate treatment of pial AVF.
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