Epidemiologic and clinical data for 53 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (cases) were compared with those for 106 patients with endemic paracoccidioidomycosis (controls). The prevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis co-infection was estimated in 1.4% in cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients co-infected with HIV were younger, less involved in agricultural occupations; 83.7% had CD4+ cell count < 200 cells/microL. Paracoccidioidomycosis in co-infected patients usually showed a rapid progression, with more fever, frequent involvement of the lungs, and multiple extrapulmonary lesions. The response to antifungal therapy and deaths caused by paracoccidioidomycosis were similar in the two patient groups, but late relapses were more common in co-infected cases. Paracoccidioidomycosis in HIV-infected patients shows epidemiologic and clinical characteristics differing from those of the endemic disease and should be considered an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in Latin America.
Canini SRMS, Gir E, Hayashida M, Machado AA. Acidentes perfurocortantes entre trabalhadores de enfermagem de um hospital universitário do inteiror paulista. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2002 março-abril; 10(2):172-8.
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The frequency and severity of infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were assessed in children <2 years of age seen at the emergency department. The frequency of RSV detection in the clinical virology laboratory during the past 3 years was also analyzed retrospectively. RSV was found in 21.6% (188/869) of the samples collected from children seen at the emergency department and was found to be more frequent during the autumn, being less frequent or negligible by midwinter. RSV subgroups A and B co-circulated within the same time period in children seen at the emergency department, with varying predominance of either subgroup. There was no significant association of RSV subgroup with disease severity, but only a trend for RSV subgroup B being more frequent in children with risk factors for severe disease.
The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.
Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been documented in all countries that have surveyed for it and may result in an unfavorable response to therapy. The prevalence and characteristics of individuals with transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs have been scarcely described in Brazil. We performed antiretroviral resistance testing prior to initiation of therapy in 400 subjects enrolled from 20 centers in 13 Brazilian cities between March and September 2007. Genotyping was conducted using PCR-amplified HIV pol products by automated sequencing, and genotype interpretation was done according to the IAS-USA consensus. Of 400 eligible participants, 387 (95.8%) were successfully tested. Seven percent of antiretroviral-naive patients carried viruses with one or more major mutation associated with drug resistance. The prevalence of these mutations was 1.0% for protease inhibitors, 4.4% for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 1.3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The frequency of multidrug resistance among the resistant strains was 13.6%. Among subjects infected with drug-resistant virus, the majority were infected with subtype B viruses (91%). Subjects from the city of São Paulo had higher transmitted resistance mutations compared to the rest of the country. Reporting a partner taking antiretroviral medications was associated with a higher chance of harboring HIV variants with major drug resistance mutations [odds ratio = 2.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-6.16); p = 0.014]. Resistance testing in drug-naive individuals identified 7% of subjects with mutations associated with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs. Continued surveillance of drug-resistant HIV-1 in Brazil is warranted when guidelines for HIV prophylaxis and treatment are updated. Resistance testing among drug-naive patients prior to treatment initiation should be considered, mainly directed at subjects whose partners are already on antiretroviral therapy.
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