Accurate preoperative staging and restaging of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with potentially resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is of paramount importance. In 2007, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) published an algorithm on preoperative mediastinal staging integrating imaging, endoscopic and surgical techniques. In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) introduced a new lymph node map. Some changes in this map have an important impact on mediastinal staging. Moreover, more evidence of the different mediastinal staging technique has become available. Therefore, a revision of the ESTS guidelines was needed. In case of computed tomography (CT)-enlarged or positron emission tomography (PET)-positive mediastinal lymph nodes, tissue confirmation is indicated. Endosonography [endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS)/esophageal ultrasonography (EUS)] with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the first choice (when available), since it is minimally invasive and has a high sensitivity to rule in mediastinal nodal disease. If negative, surgical staging with nodal dissection or biopsy is indicated. Video-assisted mediastinoscopy is preferred to mediastinoscopy. The combined use of endoscopic staging and surgical staging results in the highest accuracy. When there are no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and when there is no uptake in lymph nodes on PET or PET-CT, direct surgical resection with systematic nodal dissection is indicated for tumours ≤ 3 cm located in the outer third of the lung. In central tumours or N1 nodes, preoperative mediastinal staging is indicated. The choice between endoscopic staging with EBUS/EUS and FNA or video-assisted mediastinoscopy depends on local expertise to adhere to minimal requirements for staging. For tumours >3 cm, preoperative mediastinal staging is advised, mainly in adenocarcinoma with high standardized uptake value. For restaging, invasive techniques providing histological information are advisable. Both endoscopic techniques and surgical procedures are available, but their negative predictive value is lower compared with the results obtained in baseline staging. An integrated strategy using endoscopic staging techniques to prove mediastinal nodal disease and mediastinoscopy to assess nodal response after induction therapy needs further study.
Background: We planned to investigate the effect of preoperative short period intensive physical therapy on lung functions, gas-exchange, and capacity of diffusion, and ventilation-perfusion distribution of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Sixty patients with lung cancer, who were deemed operable, were randomly allocated into two groups. Intensive physical therapy was performed in patients in the study group before operation. Both groups received routine physical therapy after operation. Results: There was no difference in pulmonary function tests between the two groups. Intensive physical therapy statistically significantly increased peripheral blood oxygen saturation. At least one complication was noted in 5 patients (16.7%) in the control group, and 2 (6.7%), in the study group. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0,4). The hospital stay has been found to be statistically significantly shortened by intensive physical therapy (p <0.001). Ventilation-perfusion distribution was found to be significantly effected by intensive physical therapy. The change was prominent in the the contralateral lung (p <0.001). Conclusions: Intensive physical therapy appeared to increase oxygen saturation, reduce hospital stay, and change the ventilation/perfusion distribution. It had a significant, positive effect on the exercise capacity of patients.
Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) is a very rare condition, mainly seen in patients with underlying lung disease. Up to now, there are 65 patients who have been published. Twelve consecutive patients who presented with SBSP as definitive diagnosis were recruited for this study. They represented 1 % of all patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. All patients had immediate bilateral chest tubes on admission. Five of the 12 patients (42%) had no underlying lung disease. In 7 patients, SBSP was secondary to pulmonary metastases, histiocytosis X, undefined interstitial pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. None of the patients died during hospitalization. Eleven patients were treated with chemical pleurodesis, whereas thoracotomy and pleurectomy were necessary in 7 patients. Reexpansion of the lungs was achieved in all patients. Immediate bilateral chest tube insertion and pleurodesis are of major importance in the treatment of SBSP although a subset of patients needed surgical pleurectomy. Combination of these treatments provides successful and uneventful treatment of the disease.
Objective: Our aim was to validate the prognostic relevance in NSCLC of potential residual tumor (R) descriptors, including the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer definition for uncertain resection, referred to as R(un).Methods: A total of 14,712 patients undergoing resection with full R status and survival were analyzed. The following were also evaluated: whether fewer than three N2 stations
Our goal was to report the results of the first consensus paper among international experts in uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (UniVATS) lobectomy obtained through a Delphi process, the objective of which was to define and standardize the main procedural steps, optimize its indications and perioperative management and identify elements to assist in future training.
The 40 members of the working group were convened and organized on a voluntary basis by the Uniportal VATS Interest Group (UVIG) of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS). An e-consensus finding exercise using the Delphi method was applied to require 75% agreement for reaching consensus on each question. Repeated iterations of anonymous voting continued for 3 rounds.
Overall, 31 international experts from 18 countries completed all 3 rounds of questionnaires. Although a technical quorum was not achieved, most of the responders agreed that the maximum size of a UniVATS incision should be ≤4 cm. Agreement was reached on many points outlining the currently accepted definition of a UniVATS lobectomy, its indications and contraindications, perioperative clinical management and recommendations for training and future research directions.
The UVIG Consensus Report stated that UniVATS offers a valid alternative to standard VATS techniques. Only longer follow-up and randomized controlled studies will predict whether UniVATS represents a valid alternative approach to multiport VATS for major lung resections or whether it should be performed only in selected cases and by selected centres. The next step for the ESTS UVIG is the establishment of a UniVATS section inside the ESTS databases.
A quarter of patients with clinical N1 (cN1) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging have occult mediastinal nodal involvement (N2 disease). In a prospective study, endosonography alone had an unsatisfactory sensitivity (38%) in detecting N2 disease. The current prospective multicentre trial investigated the sensitivity of preoperative mediastinal staging by video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) or VAM-lymphadenectomy (VAMLA).Consecutive patients with operable and resectable (suspected) NSCLC and cN1 after PET-CT imaging underwent VAM(LA). The primary study outcome was sensitivity to detect N2 disease. Secondary endpoints were the prevalence of N2 disease, negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of VAM(LA).Out of 105 patients with cN1 on imaging, 26% eventually developed N2 disease. Invasive mediastinal staging with VAM(LA) had a sensitivity of 73% to detect N2 disease. The NPV was 92% and accuracy 93%. Median number of assessed lymph node stations during VAM(LA) was 4 (IQR 3-5), and in 96%, at least three stations were assessed.VAM(LA) has a satisfactory sensitivity of 73% to detect mediastinal nodal disease in cN1 lung cancer, and could be the technique of choice for pre-resection mediastinal lymph node assessment in this patient group with a one in four chance of occult-positive mediastinal nodes after negative PET-CT.
Construction of cTNM stage remains a crude evaluation, preoperative mediastinoscopy in every patient must be performed. Preoperative limited T4 disease is not to deny surgery to patients since a considerable number of patients with cT4 are to be understaged following surgery.
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