The fibrous shape of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) raises concern that they may pose an asbestos-like inhalation hazard, leading to the development of diseases, especially mesothelioma. Direct instillation of long and short CNTs into the pleural cavity, the site of mesothelioma development, produced asbestos-like length-dependent responses. The response to long CNTs and long asbestos was characterized by acute inflammation, leading to progressive fibrosis on the parietal pleura, where stomata of strictly defined size limit the egress of long, but not short, fibers. This was confirmed by demonstrating clearance of short, but not long, CNT and nickel nanowires and by visualizing the migration of short CNTs from the pleural space by single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging. Our data confirm the hypothesis that, although a proportion of all deposited particles passes through the pleura, the pathogenicity of long CNTs and other fibers arises as a result of length-dependent retention at the stomata on the parietal pleura.
In a report from 2008, The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicted a tripled cancer incidence from 1975, projecting a possible 13-17 million cancer deaths worldwide by 2030. While new treatments are evolving and reaching approval for different cancer types, the main prevention of cancer mortality is through early diagnosis, detection and treatment of malignant cell growth. The last decades have seen a development of new imaging techniques now in widespread clinical use. The development of nano-imaging through fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to detect and diagnose cancer at an earlier stage than with current imaging methods. The characteristic properties of nanoparticles result in their theranostic potential allowing for simultaneous detection of and treatment of the disease. This review provides state of the art of the nanotechnological applications for cancer therapy. Furthermore, it advances a novel concept of personalized nanomedical theranostic therapy using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in conjunction with MRI imaging. Regulatory and industrial perspectives are also included to outline future perspectives in nanotechnological cancer research.
To date, the translation of Au (III) complexes into chemotherapeutic agents has been hindered by their low stability under physiological conditions, a crucial parameter in drug development. In this study, we report an innovative four-step synthesis of a stable Au (III)-doxorubicin (DOX) complex, acting as a key constitutive component of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-coated nanoparticles (DOX IN-PEG-AuNPs). For therapeutic purposes, such AuNPs were then functionalized with the anti-Kv11.1 polyclonal antibody (pAb), which specifically recognizes the hERG1 channel that is overexpressed on the membrane of human pancreatic cancer cells. The nature of the interactions between DOX and Au (III) ions was probed by various analytical techniques (Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis, and (1)H NMR), which enabled studying the Au (III)-DOX interactions during AuNPs formation. The theoretical characterization of the vibrational bands and the electronic transitions of the Au (III)-DOX complex calculated through computational studies showed significant qualitative agreement with the experimental observations on AuNPs samples. Stability in physiological conditions and efficient drug loading (up to to 85 w/w %) were achieved, while drug release was strongly dependent on the structure of DOX IN-PEG-AuNPs and on the pH. Furthermore, the interactions among DOX, PEG, and Au (III) ions in DOX IN-PEG-AuNPs differed significantly from those found in polymer-modified AuNPs loaded with DOX by covalent linkage, referred to as DOX ON-PEG-AuNPs. In vitro experiments indeed demonstrated that such differences strongly influenced the therapeutic potential of AuNPs in pancreatic cancer treatment, with a significant increase of the DOX therapeutic index when complexed to Au (III) ions. Collectively, our study demonstrated that Au (III)-DOX complexes as building blocks of PEGylated AuNPs constitutes a promising approach to transform promising Au (III) complexes into real chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
International audienceThe main objective of this study was to optimize and characterize a drug delivery carrier for doxorubicin, intended to be intravenously administered, capable of improving the therapeutic index of the chemotherapeutic agent itself, and aimed at the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In light of this goal, we report a robust one-step method for the synthesis of dicarboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG)-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and doxorubicin-loaded PEG-AuNPs, and their further antibody targeting (anti-Kv11.1 polyclonal antibody [pAb]). In in vitro proof-of-concept studies, we evaluated the influence of the nanocarrier and of the active targeting functionality on the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin, with respect to its half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) and drug-triggered changes in the cell cycle. Our results demonstrated that the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin was positively influenced not only by the active targeting exploited through anti-Kv11.1-pAb but also by the drug coupling with a nanometer-sized delivery system, which indeed resulted in a 30-fold decrease of doxorubicin EC50, cell cycle blockage, and drug localization in the cell nuclei. The cell internalization pathway was strongly influenced by the active targeting of the Kv11.1 subunit of the human Ether-à-go-go related gene 1 (hERG1) channel aberrantly expressed on the membrane of pancreatic cancer cells. Targeted PEG-AuNPs were translocated into the lysosomes and were associated to an increased lysosomal function in PANC-1 cells. Additionally, doxorubicin release into an aqueous environment was almost negligible after 7 days, suggesting that drug release from PEG-AuNPs was triggered by enzymatic activity. Although preliminary, data gathered from this study have considerable potential in the application of safe-by-design nano-enabled drug-delivery systems (ie, nanomedicines) for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, a disease with a poor prognosis and one of the main current burdens of today’s health care bill of industrialized countries
IntroductionTumor cells can effectively be killed by heat, e.g. by using magnetic hyperthermia. The main challenge in the field, however, is the generation of therapeutic temperatures selectively in the whole tumor region. We aimed to improve magnetic hyperthermia of breast cancer by using innovative nanoparticles which display a high heating potential and are functionalized with a cell internalization and a chemotherapeutic agent to increase cell death.MethodsThe superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MF66) were electrostatically functionalized with either Nucant multivalent pseudopeptide (N6L; MF66-N6L), doxorubicin (DOX; MF66-DOX) or both (MF66-N6LDOX). Their cytotoxic potential was assessed in a breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231. Therapeutic efficacy was analyzed on subcutaneous MDA-MB-231 tumor bearing female athymic nude mice.ResultsAll nanoparticle variants showed an excellent heating potential around 500 W/g Fe in the alternating magnetic field (AMF, conditions: H = 15.4 kA/m, f = 435 kHz). We could show a gradual inter- and intracellular release of the ligands, and nanoparticle uptake in cells was increased by the N6L functionalization. MF66-DOX and MF66-N6LDOX in combination with hyperthermia were more cytotoxic to breast cancer cells than the respective free ligands. We observed a substantial tumor growth inhibition (to 40% of the initial tumor volume, complete tumor regression in many cases) after intratumoral injection of the nanoparticles in vivo. The proliferative activity of the remaining tumor tissue was distinctly reduced.ConclusionThe therapeutic effects of breast cancer magnetic hyperthermia could be strongly enhanced by the combination of MF66 functionalized with N6L and DOX and magnetic hyperthermia. Our approach combines two ways of tumor cell killing (magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy) and represents a straightforward strategy for translation into the clinical practice when injecting nanoparticles intratumorally.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13058-015-0576-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Suspicion has been raised that high aspect ratio nanoparticles or nanofibers might possess asbestos-like pathogenicity. The pleural space is a specific target for disease in individuals exposed to asbestos and by implication of nanofibers. Pleural effects of fibers depends on fiber length, but the key threshold length beyond which adverse effects occur has never been identified till now because all asbestos and vitreous fiber samples are heterogeneously distributed in their length. Nanotechnology advantageously allows for highly defined length distribution of synthetically engineered fibers that enable for in-depth investigation of this threshold length. We utilized the ability to prepare silver nanofibers of five defined length classes to demonstrate a threshold fiber length for acute pleural inflammation. Nickel nanofibers and carbon nanotubes were then used to strengthen the relationship between fiber length and pleural inflammation. A method of intrapleural injection of nanofibers in female C57Bl/6 strain mice was used to deliver the fiber dose, and we then assessed the acute pleural inflammatory response. Chest wall sections were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy to identify areas of lesion; furthermore, cell-nanowires interaction on the mesothelial surface of the parietal pleura in vivo was investigated. Our results showed a clear threshold effect, demonstrating that fibers beyond 4 µm in length are pathogenic to the pleura. The identification of the threshold length for nanofiber-induced pathogenicity in the pleura has important implications for understanding the structure-toxicity relationship for asbestos-induced mesothelioma and consequent risk assessment with the aim to contribute to the engineering of synthetic nanofibers by the adoption of a benign-by-design approach.
The high global incidence of cancer is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity worldwide. By taking advantage of the properties of matter at the nanoscale, nanomedicine promises to develop innovative drugs with greater efficacy and less side effects than standard therapies. Here, we discuss both clinically available anti-cancer nanomedicines and those en route to future clinical application. The properties, therapeutic value, advantages and limitations of these nanomedicine products are highlighted, with a focus on their increased performance versus conventional molecular anticancer therapies. The main regulatory challenges toward the translation of innovative, clinically effective nanotherapeutics are discussed, with a view to improving current approaches to the clinical management of cancer. Ultimately, it becomes clear that the critical steps for clinical translation of nanotherapeutics require further interdisciplinary and international effort, where the whole stakeholder community is involved from bench to bedside. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide and finding a cure remains the holy-grail for many researchers and clinicians. The advance in nanotechnology has enabled novel strategies to develop in terms of cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this concise review article, the authors described current capabilities in this field and outlined comparisons with existing drugs. The difficulties in bringing new drugs to the clinics were also discussed.
One of the key challenges in the field of nanoparticle (NP) analysis is in producing reliable and reproducible characterisation data for nanomaterials. This study looks at the reproducibility using a relatively new, but rapidly adopted, technique, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) on a range of particle sizes and materials in several different media. It describes the protocol development and presents both the data and analysis of results obtained from 12 laboratories, mostly based in Europe, who are primarily QualityNano members. QualityNano is an EU FP7 funded Research Infrastructure that integrates 28 European analytical and experimental facilities in nanotechnology, medicine and natural sciences with the goal of developing and implementing best practice and quality in all aspects of nanosafety assessment. This study looks at both the development of the protocol and how this leads to highly reproducible results amongst participants. In this study, the parameter being measured is the modal particle size.
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