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“…With the use of circular polarizer and analyzer, as opposed to simply crossed-linear polarizers, orientation-independent image contrast is generated in real-time. This method was first demonstrated as early as 1966 for orientation-independent imaging of myelin birefringence in the nervous system, 47 yet its robustness for label-free histopathology of myelin in brain tissue has not been fully realized. Compared to other groups that have used liquid-crystal variable retarders for maximizing speed during quantitative birefringence imaging, 59,60 our system has been designed with zero-order quarter-wave plates to achieve better extinction ratios and to maximize contrast for the smallest birefringent structures (i.e., the smallest myelinated axons) that can be imaged with a diffraction-limited optical system.…”
Section: Cross-circular-polarized Birefringence Microscopymentioning
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“…With the use of circular polarizer and analyzer, as opposed to simply crossed-linear polarizers, orientation-independent image contrast is generated in real-time. This method was first demonstrated as early as 1966 for orientation-independent imaging of myelin birefringence in the nervous system, 47 yet its robustness for label-free histopathology of myelin in brain tissue has not been fully realized. Compared to other groups that have used liquid-crystal variable retarders for maximizing speed during quantitative birefringence imaging, 59,60 our system has been designed with zero-order quarter-wave plates to achieve better extinction ratios and to maximize contrast for the smallest birefringent structures (i.e., the smallest myelinated axons) that can be imaged with a diffraction-limited optical system.…”
Section: Cross-circular-polarized Birefringence Microscopymentioning
“…The earliest reports of using birefringence (or polarized-light) microscopy for imaging myelin degeneration in peripheral nerves were published decades ago. [45][46][47] Those early reports, however, described only qualitative imaging. More recently, qBRM has been demonstrated, 48,49 enabling determination of the relative retardance and local orientation of structural anisotropy for every pixel in an image.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Such principle of measurement is referred to as polarimetry and has been used in anatomical studies of the central nervous system already a century ago (Brodmann, 1903 ). However, in the recent past, significant advances in the 3D reconstruction of microtome sections (Dauguet et al, 2007 ; Singh et al, 2008 ; Capek et al, 2009 ; Palm et al, 2010 ), image analysis, computational techniques, and progress in understanding the interaction of polarized light with birefringent tissue (Schnabel, 1966 ; Fraher and MacConnaill, 1970 ; Oldenbourg and Mei, 1995 ;Oldenbourg, 1996 ; Oldenbourg et al, 1998 ; Massoumian et al, 2003 ; Farrell et al, 2005 ; Larsen et al, 2007 ; Axer et al, 2011 ) have opened up new avenues to study brain regions with complex fiber architecture at the highest level of detail. We took advantage of this progress to gain a vector field description of fiber tract orientations in histological brain sections and to reconstruct 3D fiber tract models in selected brain regions across a series of aligned sections.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning