1998
DOI: 10.1080/01647959808684131 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Behavioral diapause was evaluated for overwintering Amblyomma americanum (L.) and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) laboratory strains. Ticks were placed in outdoor arenas on 30 Oct. 1996. On 9 Jan. 1997 specimens were removed for infestation on New Zealand white rabbits exposed to outside conditions or in a temperature and photoperiod controlled vivarium. Upon repletion, females were placed in tick rearing chambers indoors or retnmed to natural conditions. Both tick species readily attached when placed outside or … Show more

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“…Amblyomma americanum is freeze‐intolerant (Burks et al 1996), especially in immature stages (Needham et al 1996). While not shown to exhibit behavioral diapause in response to winter conditions (Stewart et al 1998), A. americanum ceases all activity at temperatures below approximately 7° C (Clark 1995). Winter therefore limits the active season of nymphs and adults while killing almost all unfed larvae (Sonenshine and Levy 1971, Koch 1984, Foré and Kim unpublished data).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…Amblyomma americanum is freeze‐intolerant (Burks et al 1996), especially in immature stages (Needham et al 1996). While not shown to exhibit behavioral diapause in response to winter conditions (Stewart et al 1998), A. americanum ceases all activity at temperatures below approximately 7° C (Clark 1995). Winter therefore limits the active season of nymphs and adults while killing almost all unfed larvae (Sonenshine and Levy 1971, Koch 1984, Foré and Kim unpublished data).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Short day exposure reduces water loss apparently to prepare for winter water conservation but was demonstrated to be quickly reversible (Yoder et al 2016). Activity ceases on average at temperatures less than 7° C (Clark 1995), and studies suggest that winter conditions do not trigger behavioral diapause (Stewart et al 1998). Nymphs and adults overwinter with relatively high success, but unfed larvae rarely survive (Sonenshine and Levy 1971, Koch 1984, Foré and Kim, unpublished data).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Further, the capacity by D. variabilis nonfed stages to quickly switch to and from dormant inactive and non-dormant active states differs remarkably from a deep diapause syndrome where once it is terminated the dormancy cannot be readily re-entered (Denlinger 2002;Denlinger and Lee 2010). Quiescence, rather than a distinct diapause, in D. variabilis is likely the reason that Stewart et al (1998) noted potentially dormant nonfed adults of D. variabilis will quickly become active and feed when moved to long day conditions. All nonfed stages of D. variabilis have a short day-induced quiescence, and this makes a major contribution to conservation of the body water pool for overwintering of ticks.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Consistent with the broad range, Belozerov (2009) indicates that D. variabilis is capable of hibernating in all nonfed stages (larva, nymph, adult) based on experimental observations of Smith and Cole (1941), Sonenshine (1972), (1979), and Burg (2001. However, Stewart et al (1998) reports that D. variabilis does not undergo diapause as a nonfed adult; when nonfed adults of D. variabilis are removed from winter (January) field conditions and taken indoors, they immediately become activated when presented with a host, ingest blood, and produce eggs. This contradicts Smith and Cole's (1941) report on D. variabilis exposed to varying day lengths, where short day exposed individuals have a reduced propensity to feed compared to those under long days.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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