2013
DOI: 10.18632/aging.100581
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Abstract: Calorie Restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows aging and increases average and maximal lifespan in simple model organisms and rodents. In rhesus monkeys long-term CR reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, and protects against age-associated sarcopenia and neurodegeneration. However, so far CR significantly increased average lifespan only in the Wisconsin, but not in the NIA monkey study. Differences in diet composition and study design between the 2 on-going trials ma… Show more

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Cited by 107 publications
(91 citation statements)
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References 49 publications
(65 reference statements)
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“…Moreover, Okinawans, as opposed to mainland Japanese people, are also significantly shorter and have longer life expectancies. Other studies found that numerous biological parameters improve with reduced caloric intake and dietary restriction has, by and large, "a powerful protective effect" against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer (Fontana 2009;Cava and Fontana 2013). Therefore, it is reasonable to predict that reduced risk of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus can increase longevity since over 75% of the causes of deaths after the age of 65 are due to these chronic diseases.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…Moreover, Okinawans, as opposed to mainland Japanese people, are also significantly shorter and have longer life expectancies. Other studies found that numerous biological parameters improve with reduced caloric intake and dietary restriction has, by and large, "a powerful protective effect" against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer (Fontana 2009;Cava and Fontana 2013). Therefore, it is reasonable to predict that reduced risk of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus can increase longevity since over 75% of the causes of deaths after the age of 65 are due to these chronic diseases.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Therefore, it is reasonable to predict that reduced risk of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus can increase longevity since over 75% of the causes of deaths after the age of 65 are due to these chronic diseases. For instance, the Framingham Heart Study showed that when the risk of cardiovascular disease is low, the average lifespan increases from 29 to over 39 years (Cava and Fontana 2013). On the other hand, there is currently no evidence that dietary restriction increases lifespan or health span in humans, primates, or other long-lived species (Austad 2012).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…43 The life extending effect of CR can be explained by inhibition of mTOR. [44][45][46][47][48][49] Fasting only minimally downregulated p-S6 in old mice, compared with young animals. 42 As we showed here, fasting levels of p-S6 were higher in old mice compared with middle-aged animals.…”
Section: Implications For Health-and Life-extensionmentioning
confidence: 92%
“…Until know, caloric restriction, i.e., reducing caloric consumption without causing malnutrition, is the only known nongenetic intervention capable of increasing the mean and maximal lifespan and delay agerelated diseases and cognitive decline (Weindruch 1996;Roth et al 2001;Anton and Leeuwenburgh 2013;Cava and Fontana 2013). This radical nutritional intervention also induces several beneficial effects in the health of many species, including mammals and nonhuman primates (Fontana et al 2010;Roth and Polotsky 2012).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%