DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/3232.003.0007
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Abstract: A ftcrthree d(."{;ades of worldwide research on reciprocal altruism and relatcd phenomcna. Ut) more than a modest number of animal examples havc Ix:cn idcntifi ed. EVI:11 in pnma tes, evidence for rec iprOCIty is surprismgly scarce. In contrast to th e shortage o f ,upport. rec iproca l altruism and Tit-for-Tat-l ike behavior hitvC beetl used as the prime c~p lana t i on for cooperation among nonkin. From models based on this line of reason ing. l111e casily gets the impression that rec iprocity should be widc…

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