Brain tumor surgery requires careful balance between maximizing tumor excision and preserving eloquent cortex. In some cases, the surgeon may opt to perform an awake craniotomy including intraoperative mapping of brain function by direct cortical stimulation (DCS) to assist in surgical decision-making. Preoperatively, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) facilitates planning by identification of eloquent brain areas, helping to guide DCS and other aspects of the surgical plan. H…
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