2019
DOI: 10.1177/0301006619869134
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Virtual Faces Evoke Only a Weak Uncanny Valley Effect: An Empirical Investigation With Controlled Virtual Face Images

Abstract: The uncanny valley (UV) hypothesis suggests that increasingly human-like robots or virtual characters elicit more familiarity in their observers (positive affinity) with the exception of nearhuman characters that elicit strong feelings of eeriness (negative affinity). We studied this hypothesis in three experiments with carefully matched images of virtual faces varying from artificial to realistic. We investigated both painted and computer-generated (CG) faces to tap a broad range of human-likeness and to test… Show more

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Cited by 38 publications
(29 citation statements)
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“…Several studies reporting an uncanny response of humans used stimuli with abnormal features, such as unnaturally large eyes, mismatched degree of realism of different face parts (Seyama and Nagayama, 2007;MacDorman et al, 2009;Lischetzke et al, 2017), or alteration by plastic surgery (Rosenthal-von der Pütten et al, 2019). Among the studies that failed to detect an uncanny valley were notably those deploying controlled, morphed stimulus sets varying only realism (MacDorman and Chattopadhyay, 2017; Kätsyri et al, 2019). As Seyama and Nagayama (2007) pointed out, some robots, dolls, or computer animations seem very pleasant although they are unrealistic, and conversely, humans differ in perceived levels of pleasantness although they are all real.…”
Section: Implications For the Uncanny Valley Hypothesismentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Several studies reporting an uncanny response of humans used stimuli with abnormal features, such as unnaturally large eyes, mismatched degree of realism of different face parts (Seyama and Nagayama, 2007;MacDorman et al, 2009;Lischetzke et al, 2017), or alteration by plastic surgery (Rosenthal-von der Pütten et al, 2019). Among the studies that failed to detect an uncanny valley were notably those deploying controlled, morphed stimulus sets varying only realism (MacDorman and Chattopadhyay, 2017; Kätsyri et al, 2019). As Seyama and Nagayama (2007) pointed out, some robots, dolls, or computer animations seem very pleasant although they are unrealistic, and conversely, humans differ in perceived levels of pleasantness although they are all real.…”
Section: Implications For the Uncanny Valley Hypothesismentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The "uncanny valley" phenomenon has been widely observed in experiments with visual stimuli (MacDorman, 2006;Bartneck et al, 2007;Seymour et al, 2017;Kätsyri et al, 2019;Pütten et al, 2019). Among other factors, visual liking of humanoids depends on the degree of anthropomorphism in their appearance (Kim et al, 2019), their attitude (Złotowski et al, 2018), expressed emotion (Tschöpe et al, 2017), nonverbal behavior (Thepsoonthorn et al, 2018), motion (Castro-González et al, 2016), their gender (Kraus et al, 2018), and also on participants' personality traits (MacDorman and Entezari, 2015).…”
Section: Visual Perception Of Humanoidsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Moreover, stimuli presented differ in various ways, such as in the extent to which they reflect real or unrealistic stimuli, how image morphs are created, use of real or computer-generated stimuli, or level of exposure to these stimuli. Notably, a weak uncanny valley effect was recently reported for computer-generated, but not real or painted human facial stimuli (Kätsyri et al, 2019). Given the variety of approaches to measuring the uncanny valley, it is thus unsurprising that results across different studies are somewhat disparate.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 98%