In order to enhance heat transfer in the abrasive-milling processes to reduce thermal damage, the concept of employing oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) in an abrasive-milling tool is proposed. A single-loop OHP (SLOHP) is positioned on the plane parallel to the rotational axis of the tool. In this case, centrifugal accelerations do not segregate the fluid between the evaporator and condenser. The experimental investigation is conducted to study the effects of centrifugal acceleration (0–738 m/s2), heat flux (9100–31,850 W/m2) and working fluids (methanol, acetone and water) on the thermal performance. Results show that the centrifugal acceleration has a positive influence on the thermal performance of the axial-rotating SLOHP when filled with acetone or methanol. As for water, with the increase of centrifugal acceleration, the heat transfer performance first increases and then decreases. The thermal performance enhances for higher heat flux rises for all the fluids. The flow inside the axial-rotating SLOHP is analyzed by a slow-motion visualization supported by the theoretical analysis. Based on the theoretical analysis, the rotation will increase the resistance for the vapor to penetrate through the liquid slugs to form an annular flow, which is verified by the visualization.